Financial Reports

Notes to the Financial Statements

1. Reporting Entity

1.1.Corporate Information

Commercial Bank of Ceylon PLC (the ‘Bank’) is a public limited liability company listed on the Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE), incorporated on June 25, 1969 under the Companies Ordinance No. 51 of 1938, and domiciled in Sri Lanka. It is a licensed commercial bank regulated under the Banking Act No. 30 of 1988 and amendments thereto. The Bank was re-registered under the Companies Act No. 07 of 2007 on January 23, 2008, under the Company Registration No. PQ 116. The registered office of the Bank is situated at ‘Commercial House’, No. 21, Sir Razik Fareed Mawatha, Colombo 01, Sri Lanka. The ordinary shares of the Bank have a primary listing on the CSE.

The staff strength of the Bank as at December 31, 2016 was 4,987 (4,951 as at December 31, 2015).

Corporate information is presented in the inner back cover of this Annual Report.

1.2 Consolidated Financial Statements

The Consolidated Financial Statements as at and for the year ended December 31, 2016, comprise the Bank (Parent Company) and its Subsidiaries (together referred to as the ‘Group’ and individually as ‘Group entities’) and the Group’s interest in its Associates.

The Bank does not have an identifiable parent of its own. The Bank is the Ultimate Parent of the Group.

1.3 Principal Business Activities, Nature of Operations of the Group and Ownership by the Bank in its Subsidiaries and Associates

 

Commercial Bank of Ceylon PLC

The principal business activities of the Bank are providing a comprehensive range of financial services encompassing accepting deposits, personal banking, trade financing, off-shore banking, resident and non-resident foreign currency operations, travel-related services, corporate and retail credit, syndicated financing, project financing, development banking, lease financing, hire purchase financing, rural credit, issuing of local and international debit and credit cards, tele-banking, internet banking, mobile banking, money remittance facilities, dealing in Government Securities and treasury-related products, salary remittance package, bullion trading, export and domestic factoring, pawning, margin trading, e-Banking services, bancassurance and Islamic banking products and services, etc.

Commercial Development Company PLC (CDC)

Principal business activities of CDC are property development, related ancillary services and outsourcing of staff for non-critical functions of the Bank.

During 2015, the Board of Directors of the Bank resolved to reduce the shareholding of CDC, (in which the Bank had a stake of 94.55%) to comply with the requirements of the Listing Rule No. 7.13 of the CSE on Minimum Public Holding. Accordingly, the Bank disposed a part of shares through the CSE and reduced the shareholding in CDC to 93.85% by December 31, 2016 (94.28% by December 31, 2015) and is in the process of taking steps to dispose the required number of shares to adhere to the requirements of the Listing Rules.

CDC, holds a 20% stake of Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. The Bank has a significant influence over financial and operating activities of CIB though it effectively holds only 18.77% as at December 31, 2016 (18.86% as at December 31, 2015).

ONEzero Company Ltd.

The principal business activities being providing IT – related services.

Serendib Finance Ltd.

Principal business activities being providing financial services including leasing, hire purchase, loans, etc.

Commex Sri Lanka S.R.L.

Commex Sri Lanka S.R.L. inaugurated its money transfer operation during 2016 following the grant of a Money Transfer License from the Bank of Italy.

It operates as an agent to the Bank for opening of accounts, providing money transfer services, issuance and encashment of foreign currencies and travellers cheques, collecting applications for credit facilities and handling of ATM cards, etc.

Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited

Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited, a fully-fledged Tier-I Bank, inaugurated its banking operations in the Maldives on September 26, 2016. This is a Subsidiary of the Bank partnering with Treetop Investments Maldives.

The principal activities will include offering of an extensive range of banking and related financial services.

Equity Investments Lanka Ltd.

The principal activities include investment services, risk capital and venture capital management.

Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. (CIB)

CIB, a private limited liability company is an insurance broker registered with the Ministry of Finance in terms of legislation.

There were no significant changes in the nature of the principal business activities of the Bank and the Group during the financial year under review.

2. Basis of Accounting

2.1.Statement of Compliance

The consolidated Financial Statements of the Group and the separate Financial Statements of the Bank, have been prepared and presented in accordance with the Sri Lanka Accounting Standards (SLFRSs and LKASs), laid down by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Sri Lanka (CA Sri Lanka) and in compliance with the requirements of the Companies Act and the Banking Act and provide appropriate disclosures as required by the Listing Rules of the CSE. These Financial Statements, except for information on cash flows have been prepared following the accrual basis of accounting.

These SLFRSs and LKASs are available at www.casrilanka.com

The Group did not adopt any inappropriate accounting treatments, which are not in compliance with the requirements of the SLFRSs and LKASs, regulations governing the preparation and presentation of the Financial Statements.

Details of the Group’s Significant Accounting Policies followed during the year are given in Notes 6 to 10 on pages 200 to 211.

The formats used in the preparation of the Financial Statements and the disclosures made therein also comply with the specified formats prescribed by the CBSL for the preparation, presentation and publication of Annual Audited Financial Statements of Licensed Commercial Banks.

2.2 Responsibility for Financial Statements

The Board of Directors of the Bank is responsible for the preparation and presentation of the Financial Statements of the Group and the Bank as per the provisions of the Companies Act No. 07 of 2007 and Sri Lanka Accounting Standards (SLFRSs and LKASs).

The Board of Directors acknowledges their responsibility for Financial Statements as set out in the ‘Annual Report of the Board of Directors’, ‘Statement of Directors’ Responsibility’ and the certification on the Statement of Financial Position on pages 153, 164 and 185, respectively.

These Financial Statements include the following components:

    an Income Statement and a Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income providing the information on the financial performance of the Group and the Bank for the year under review. Refer pages 183 and 184; a Statement of Financial Position providing the information on the financial position of the Group and the Bank as at the year end. Refer page 185; a Statement of Changes in Equity depicting all changes in shareholders’ funds during the year under review of the Group and the Bank. Refer pages 186 to 189; a Statement of Cash Flows providing the information to the users, on the ability of the Group and the Bank to generate cash and cash equivalents and utilisation of those cash flows. Refer page 190; Notes to the Financial Statements comprising Significant Accounting Policies and other explanatory information. Refer pages 191 to 352.

2.3 Approval of Financial Statements by the Board of Directors

The Financial Statements of the Group and the Bank for the year ended December 31, 2016 (including comparatives for 2015), were approved and authorised for issue by the Board of Directors in accordance with Resolution of the Directors on February 22, 2017.

2.4 Basis of Measurement

The Financial Statements of the Group have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the following material items stated in the Statement of Financial Position.

Items Basis of Measurement Note No./s Page/s
Held-for-trading financial instruments including financial derivatives Fair Value &31 241 – 244
Financial investments – Available-for-sale Fair Value 34 251
Land and buildings Measured at cost at the time of acquisition and subsequently at revalued amounts which are the fair values at the date of revaluation 39 265
Defined benefit obligation Net liability for defined benefit obligations are recognised as the present value of the defined benefit obligation, less net total of the plan assets, plus unrecognised actuarial gains, less unrecognised past service cost and unrecognised actuarial losses 50 286
Equity settled share-based payment arrangements Fair Value on grant date 54 298

2.5 Going Concern Basis of Accounting

The Management has made an assessment of its ability to continue as a going concern and is satisfied that it has the resources to continue in business for the foreseeable future.

Furthermore, the Management is not aware of any material uncertainties that may cast significant doubt upon the Group’s ability to continue as a going concern. Therefore, the Financial Statements of the Group continue to be prepared on a going concern basis.

2.6 Functional and Presentation Currency

Items included in these Financial Statements are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Bank operates (the Functional Currency).

Each entity in the Group determines its own functional currency and items included in the Financial Statements of these entities are measured using that Functional Currency. There was no change in the Group’s Presentation and Functional Currency during the year under review.

These Financial Statements are presented in Sri Lankan Rupees, the Group’s Functional and Presentation Currency.

The information presented in US Dollars in the Section on ‘Supplementary Information’ on pages 434 and 435 does not form part of the Financial Statements and is made available solely for the information of stakeholders.

2.7 Presentation of Financial Statements

The assets and liabilities of the Group presented in the Statement of Financial Position are grouped by nature and listed in an order that reflects their relative liquidity and maturity pattern.

No adjustments have been made for inflationary factors affecting the Financial Statements.

An analysis on recovery or settlement within 12 months and after more than 12 months from the Reporting date is presented in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

2.8 Rounding

The amounts in the Financial Statements have been rounded-off to the nearest Rupees thousands, except where otherwise indicated as permitted by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 1 on ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’.

2.9 Offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount reported in the Statement of Financial Position, only when there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously. Income and expenses are not offset in the Income Statement, unless required or permitted by an Accounting Standard or Interpretation (issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee and Standard Interpretations Committee) and as specifically disclosed in the Significant Accounting Policies of the Bank.

2.10 Materiality and Aggregation

Each material class of similar items is presented separately in the Financial Statements. Items of dissimilar nature or function are presented separately, unless they are immaterial as permitted by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 1 on ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’ and amendments to the LKAS 1 on ‘Disclosure Initiative’ which was effective from January 01, 2016.

Notes to the Financial Statements are presented in a systematic manner which ensures the understandability and comparability of Financial Statements of the Group and the Bank. Understandability of the Financial Statements is not compromised by obscuring material information with immaterial information or by aggregating material items that have different natures or functions.

2.11 Comparative Information

Comparative information including quantitative, narrative and descriptive information is disclosed in respect of the previous period in the Financial Statements in order to enhance the understanding of the current period’s Financial Statements and to enhance the inter period comparability. The presentation and classification of the Financial Statements of the previous year are amended, where relevant for better presentation and to be comparable with those of the current year.

2.12 Use of Judgements and Estimates

In preparing the Financial Statements of the Group in conformity with SLFRSs and LKASs, the Management has made judgments, estimates and assumptions which affect the application of Accounting Policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively.

Significant areas of critical judgments, assumptions and estimation uncertainty, in applying Accounting Policies that have most significant effects on the amounts recognised in the Financial Statements of the Group are as follows:

A. Judgment

Information about judgments made in applying Accounting Policies that have the most significant effects on the amounts recognised in these Financial Statements is included in the following notes.

2.12.1 Determination of Control Over Investees

Management applies its judgment to determine whether the control indicators set out in Note 37 on page 260 indicates that the Group controls the investees.

2.12.2 Classification of Financial Assets and Liabilities

The Significant Accounting Policies of the Group provide scope for assets to be classified at inception into different accounting categories under certain circumstances.

    In classifying financial assets or liabilities at ‘Fair value through profit or loss’ (FVTPL), the Group has determined that it has met the criteria for this designation set out in Notes 30 and 31 on pages 240 to 241. In classifying financial assets as ‘Held-to-maturity’ (HTM), the Group has determined that it has both the positive intention and ability to hold the assets until their maturity date as required by Note 35 on page 257. In classifying financial assets as ‘Available-for-sale’ (AFS), the Group has determined that all non-derivative financial assets that are designated as available-for-sale or those financial assets not classified as loans and receivables, FVTPL or HTM be classified as AFS as set out in Note 34 on page 251.

B. Assumptions and Estimation Uncertainties

Information about assumptions and estimation uncertainties that have a significant risk of resulting in material adjustments for the year ended December 31, 2016 are included in the following Notes.

2.12.3 Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The determination of fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded on the Statement of Financial Position, for which there is no observable market price are determined using a variety of valuation techniques that include the use of mathematical models. The Group measures fair value using the fair value hierarchy that reflects the significance of input used in making measurements. Methodologies used for valuation of financial instruments and fair value hierarchy are stated in Note 26 on pages 233 to 238.

2.12.4 Impairment Losses on Loans and Receivables

The Group reviews its individually significant loans and advances at each Reporting date to assess whether an impairment loss should be provided in the Income Statement. In particular, the Management’s judgment is required in the estimation of the amount and timing of future cash flows when determining the impairment loss.

These estimates are based on assumptions about a number of factors and hence actual results may differ, resulting in future changes to the provisions made.

The individual impairment provision applies to financial assets evaluated individually for impairment and is based on Management’s best estimate of the present value of the future cash flows that are expected to be received. In estimating these cash flows, Management makes judgments about a borrower’s financial situation and the net realisable value of any underlying collateral. Each impaired asset is assessed on its merits, and the workout strategy and estimate of cash flows considered recoverable.

A collective impairment provision is established for:

    groups of homogeneous loans and advances that are not considered individually significant; and groups of assets that are individually significant but that were not found to be individually impaired

The collective provision for groups of homogeneous loans is established using statistical methods (such as, net flow rate methodology, risk migration analysis) or, a formula approach based on historical loss rate experience, using the statistical analysis of historical data on delinquency to estimate the amount of loss. Management applies judgment to ensure that the estimate of loss arrived at, on the basis of historical information is appropriately adjusted to reflect the economic conditions and portfolio factors as at the Reporting date. The loss rates are regularly reviewed against actual loss experience.

In assessing the need for collective impairment, Management considers factors such as credit quality (for example, loan to collateral ratio, level of restructured performing loans), portfolio size, concentrations and economic factors. To estimate the required allowance, assumptions are made to define how inherent losses are modelled and to determine the required input parameters, based on historical experience and current economic conditions (including policy rates, inflation, growth in Gross Domestic Product, sovereign rating, etc).

The accuracy of the provision depends on the model assumptions and parameters used in determining the collective provision.

Refer Note 18 on page 220 for details.

2.12.5 Impairment of Financial Investments – Available-for-Sale

The Group reviews the debt securities classified as available-for-sale investments at each Reporting date to assess whether they are impaired. This requires similar judgments as applied on the individual assessment of loans and advances.

The Group also records impairment charges on available-for-sale equity investments when there has been a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value below their cost along with the historical share price movements, duration and extent up to which the fair value of an investment is less than its cost.

Refer Note 7.1.10.2 on page 206 for details.

2.12.6 Impairment of Non-Financial Assets

The Group assesses whether there are any indicators of impairment for an asset or a cash generating unit (CGU) at each Reporting date or more frequently, if events or changes in circumstances necessitate to do so. This requires the estimation of the ‘Value in use’ of such individual assets or the CGUs. Estimating ‘Value in use’ requires the Management to make an estimate of the expected future cash flows from the asset or the CGU and also to select a suitable discount rate in order to calculate the present value of the relevant cash flows. This valuation requires the Group to make estimates about expected future cash flows and discount rates and hence, they are subject to uncertainty.

Refer Note 7.5 on page 207 for details.

2.12.7 Revaluation of Property, Plant & Equipment

The Group measures land and buildings at revalued amounts with changes in fair value being recognised in Equity through Other Comprehensive Income (OCI). The Group engages independent professional valuers to assess fair value of land and buildings. The key assumptions used to determine the fair value of the land and building and sensitivity analyses are provided in Note 39.5 (b) and 39.5 (c) on pages 271 to 275.

2.12.8 Useful Life-time of the Property, Plant & Equipment

The Group reviews the residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of Property, Plant & Equipment at each Reporting date. Judgment of the Management is exercised in the estimation of these values, rates, methods and hence they are subject to uncertainty.

ReferNote 20 on page 222.

2.12.9 Deferred Tax Assets

Deferred tax assets are recognised in respect of tax losses to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available and can be utilised against such tax losses. Judgement is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognised, based upon the likely timing and level of future taxable profits, together with future tax-planning strategies.

Refer Note 48 on page 283 for details.

2.12.10 Defined Benefit Obligation

The cost of the defined benefit plans determined using an actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation involves making assumptions about discount rates, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, mortality rates, future pension increases, etc. Due to the long-term nature of these plans, such estimates are subject to significant uncertainty.

Refer Note 50 on pages 286 to 294 for the assumptions used.

2.12.11 Provisions for Liabilities, Commitments and Contingencies

The Group receives legal claims in the normal course of business. Management has made judgments as to the likelihood of any claim succeeding in making provisions. The time of concluding legal claims is uncertain, as is the amount of possible outflow of economic benefits. Timing and cost ultimately depends on the due processes in respective legal jurisdictions.

Information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgments in applying Accounting Policies other than those stated above that have significant effects on the amounts recognised in the Consolidated Financial Statements are described in Notes 7.9 to 7.15 on pages 209 to 210.

2.13 Events After the Reporting Period

Events after the Reporting period are those events, favourable and unfavourable, that occur between the Reporting date and the date when the Financial Statements are authorised for issue.

In this regard, all material and important events that occurred after the Reporting period have been considered and appropriate disclosures are made in Note 70 on page 352 where necessary.

3. Financial Risk Management

3.1 Introduction and Overview

Risk is inherent in the Bank’s activities, but is managed through a process of ongoing identification, measurement and monitoring, subject to risk limits and other controls. This process of risk management is critical to the Bank’s continuing profitability and each individual within the Bank is accountable for the risk exposures relating to his or her responsibilities.

The Group has exposure mainly to the following risks from financial instruments:

  • Credit Risk;
  • Market Risk;
  • Liquidity Risk; and
  • Operational Risk.

3.2 Bank’s Risk Management Framework

The Board of Directors of the Bank has the overall responsibility for the establishment and oversight of the Bank’s Risk Management Framework.

The Risk Management Policy of the Bank translates overall risk appetite on business activities in a holistic approach to provide the guidance required for convergence of strategic and risk perspectives of the Bank.

The Group’s risk management policies are established to identify and analyse the risks faced by the Group, to set appropriate risk limits and controls, and to monitor risks and adherence to limits. The Risk Management Policy Framework constitutes the Credit Policy, Lending Guidelines, ALM Policy including Liquidity Risk Policy, Foreign Exchange Policy, Operational Risk Policy, IT Risk Management Policy, Market Risk Management Policy, Stress Testing Policy, etc., which have been firmly established to provide control and guidance for decision making throughout the Bank in a uniform manner.

The Committee structure embedded to the system acts as a fact finding and decision making authority through meaningful discussions of multiple points of view. The Risk Management Committees effectively deliberate on matters at hand to provide guidance to the business lines with a view to managing risk in accordance with the strategic goals and risk appetite of the Bank.

The Board of Directors of the Bank has formed a mandatory Subcommittee namely, the Board Integrated Risk Management Committee (BIRMC) as per Banking Act Direction No. 11 of 2007 on Corporate Governance. The performance of the Committee and the duties and roles of members are reviewed by the Board annually.

The meetings of the Executive Integrated Risk Management Committee (EIRMC) are conducted on a monthly basis to discuss Credit and Operational risk matters of the Bank while priority is given for liquidity and market risks at the Assets and Liabilities Management Committee (ALCO) meetings that convene at least once a fortnight.

In addition, the Risk Management Department carries out semi-annual Bank-wide risk assessment function focusing on adherence to laws, regulations and regulatory guidelines as well as internal controls and approved policies. A dedicated Compliance Department is entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring these requirements on an ongoing basis.

Further, the Internal Audit function of the Bank independently monitors and evaluates the risk management function of the Bank and provides their views on adequacy of the Risk Management Framework to the Board Audit Committee.

Bank’s Financial Risk Management Framework

Credit Risk

The risk that the Bank will incur a loss because its customers or counterparties fail to discharge their contractual obligations.

The Bank manages and controls credit risk by setting limits on the amount of risk it is willing to accept for individual counterparties and for geographical and industry concentrations and by monitoring exposures in relation to such limits.

Management of Credit Risk

Lending Guidelines of the Bank formulated in consultation with lending units provide expected granularity of credit assessment, risk grading, their acceptability of collateral, etc., as well as limits on exposures and concentration levels to various sectors, counter parties, geographies and segments.

A robust risk grading system incorporating Basel requirements of facility rating and counterparty rating are adopted by the Bank for evaluation of credit proposals. This risk grading framework consists 10 grades of varying degrees of risk as indicators for the Lending Officers to evaluate and arrive at suitable risk-reward trade-offs in their propositions. These risk grades are reviewed by the Integrated Risk Management Department regularly.

Bank's Financial Risk Management Framework

 

Portfolio level credit risk analyses are taken up at monthly EIRMC as well as quarterly BIRMC meetings. Individual credit proposals evaluated by the Lending Officers are approved by the Authorising Officers within the hierarchy in Delegated Authority Levels whilst ensuring a minimum of four eyes principle when approving any lending proposals. Escalation of approving levels occurs based on exposure levels as well as final risk ratings of borrowers.

The Executive Credit Committee (ECC) and the Board Credit Committee (BCC) are entrusted with approval of high value facilities while the Board will be the ultimate authority for approving facilities beyond predetermined threshold levels.

Deliberations take place at BCC level on facilities taken up for approval within the specified threshold and recommendation for approval of the Board based on quantum of exposures proposed is exercised.

The Integrated Risk Management Department provides risk approval for individual proposals above predetermined threshold levels, consequent to a rigorous independent risk evaluation guided by Credit Policy, Lending Guidelines and circular instructions within a limit framework stemming from risk appetite of the Bank.

Market Risk

The risk that the fair value or future cash flows of financial instruments will fluctuate due to changes in market variables such as interest rates, foreign exchange rates and equity prices. The Bank classifies exposures to market risk into either trading or non-trading portfolios and manages each of those portfolios separately.

The market risk for the trading portfolio is monitored and managed closely.

Management of Market Risk

Market Risk Policy, ALCO Policy and Foreign Exchange Risk Policy are the three main policies that constitute the framework governing the Market Risk Management function of the Bank.

Due to the business model adopted by the Bank, exposure to equity and commodity risk was kept at bay throughout the year.

However, Interest Rate Risk arising from the Banking Book as well as Trading Book and Foreign Exchange Risk arising from dealing in currencies other than local currency, continued to expose the Bank to associated risk elements.

Volatile interest scenarios experienced by the country during the period impacted the financial market in Sri Lanka resulted in shrinking Net Interest Margin. Interest Rates of the Banking Book was subjected to varying degrees of rate shocks to identify impact on earnings perspective in such rate scenarios. The results reflected predictions which assisted the Bank in formulating strategies to manage the financial position in an effective manner with the limited choices available.

Trading Book too was subjected to Value at Risk (VaR) framework as described in the, Section on ‘Managing Risk: An Overview’ on pages 172 to 175. The Bank also carried out sensitivity analysis on a regular basis to ascertain the impact on portfolios maintained, mainly in Government Securities and marking to market such portfolios to reflect fair value for decision making process.

Foreign exchange positions were maintained within the regulatory framework in a market where much volatility was observed in the major currency that the Bank deals in, i.e. US Dollars. The positions were subjected to sensitivity analysis to provide insight to possible losses/gains arising from currency appreciation/depreciation, as the reporting currency of the Bank being Sri Lankan Rupees.

Liquidity Risk

The risk that the Bank will encounter difficulty in meeting obligations associated with financial liabilities that are settled by delivering cash or another financial asset. Liquidity risk arises because of the possibility that the Bank might be unable to meet its payment obligations when they fall due under both normal and stress circumstances.

To limit this risk, Management has arranged for diversified funding sources in addition to its core deposit base and adopted a policy of managing assets with liquidity in mind and monitoring future cash flows and liquidity on a daily basis. The Bank has developed internal control processes and contingency plans for managing liquidity risk. This incorporates an assessment of expected cash flows and the availability of high grade collateral which could be used to secure additional funding, if required.

Management of Liquidity Risk

Market Risk Management Policy and the ALCO Policy of the Bank approved by the Board of Directors set the tone for managing liquidity risk of the Bank. Liquidity risk of the Bank is given utmost priority when managing a wide range of other risks due to the fact that it is considered as the most critical risk for any financial institution.

The Bank’s Treasury Department is entrusted with managing liquidity of the Bank on real time basis to ensure smooth functioning of business activities of all other business units of the Bank.

Having access to a substantial stable Current Account and Savings Account (CASA) base due to its wide branch network and the top of the mind perception created in the depositors in general, for stability provides immense strength to the Bank in managing liquidity.

Having high quality liquid assets at the disposal of the Bank is another plus factor for the Bank. The strength of such was amply reflected in the new Basel III parallel computation the Bank carries out for arriving at Liquidity Coverage Ratio as per the CBSL Guidelines that recorded very healthy results as compared to regulatory minimum threshold levels.

Contingency funding plans available, constant monitoring of salient liquidity ratios and scenario based stress testing being carried out regularly, provide the sense of Bank with required indicators enabling the Bank to take proactive measures that could provide time to overcome any adverse liquidity position

on a future date.

Operational Risk

The risk that the Bank will incur a loss due to systems failure, human error, fraud or external events. When controls fail to operate effectively, operational risks can cause damage to reputation, have legal or regulatory implications or lead to financial loss. The Bank cannot expect to eliminate all operational risks, but it endeavours to manage these risks through a control framework and by monitoring and responding to potential risks.

Controls include effective segregation of duties, access, authorisation and reconciliation procedures, staff education and assessment processes, such as the use of internal audit.

Management of Operational Risk

Sound Operational Risk Management practices are embedded into the work process through the Bank’s culture, internal policy framework and as per regulatory requirements.

Circular instructions and Operational Risk Management Policy play a major part in bringing together business practices with accepted benchmarks to ensure minimum disruption to processes, personnel, technology and infrastructure.

Internal control framework and Audit function with firmly established ‘three lines of defences’ serve the Bank to manage Operational Risk at current acceptable levels.

Risk and Control Self-Assessment (RCSA) framework is adopted to identify risks involved in business activities of the Bank and to implement appropriate mitigatory measures after assessing criticality of such risks.

IT Risk of the Bank is managed through strict monitoring of Key IT Risk Indicators while Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Tests are being carried out by both internal and external parties at regular intervals to identify the relevant risks.

Refer Note 69 on pages 321 to 352 for ‘Financial Risk Review’.

A detailed write-up on how the risk management is carried out within the Bank’s Risk Management Framework with due consideration given to factors such as governance, identification, assessment, monitoring, reporting and mitigation are discussed in detail in the section on ‘Managing Risk: An Overview’ on pages 172 to 175. The said write-up on ‘Managing Risk: An Overview’ does not form part of the Financial Statement.

4. Fair Value Measurement

‘Fair value’ is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date in the principal or, in its absence, the most advantageous market to which the Group has access at that date. The fair value of a liability reflects its non-performance risk.

When one is available, the Group measures the fair value of an instrument using the quoted price in an active market for that instrument. A market is regarded as active if transactions for the asset or liability take place with sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.

If there is no quoted pricing in an active market, then the Group uses valuation techniques that maximise the use of relevant observable inputs and minimise the use of unobservable inputs. The chosen valuation technique incorporates all of the factors that market participants would take into account in pricing a transaction.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use the fair value hierarchy when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

The Group recognises transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy as of the end of the Reporting period during which the change has occurred.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use. External professional valuers are involved for valuation of significant assets such as land and building.

An analysis of fair value measurement of financial and non-financial assets and liabilities is provided in on pages 233 to 238.

5. Changes in Accounting Policies

The Group and the Bank has consistently applied the Accounting Policies as set out in Notes 6 to 10 on pages 200 to 211 to all periods presented in these Financial Statements.

Significant Accounting Policies

The Significant Accounting Policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in the Financial Statements of the Group, unless otherwise indicated.

These Accounting Policies have been applied consistently by Group entities.

Set out below is an index of Significant Accounting Policies, the details of which are available on the pages that follow:

Note Description Reference to
the Note
Page No.
6. Significant Accounting Policies – General 200
6.1 Basis of consolidation 200
6.2 Foreign currency 201
7. Significant Accounting Policies – Recognition of Assets and Liabilities 202
7.1 Financial instruments – initial recognition, classification and subsequent measurement 202
7.2 Non-current assets held-for-sale and disposal groups 206
7.3 Property, plant & equipment 39 206
7.4 Intangible assets 40 207
7.5 Impairment of non-financial assets 207
7.6 Dividends payable 207
7.7 Employee benefits 207
7.8 Other liabilities 50 209
7.9 Provisions 49 209
7.10 Restructuring 209
7.11 Onerous contracts 209
7.12 Bank levies 209
7.13 Financial guarantees and loan commitments 210
7.14 Commitments 210
7.15 Contingent liabilities and commitments 59 210
7.16 Stated capital and reserves 53, 55, 56, & 57 210
7.17 Earnings per Share (EPS) 23 210
7.18 Operating segments 63 210
7.19 Fiduciary assets 210
8. Significant Accounting Policies – Recognition of Income and Expense 210
8.1 Interest income and expense 13 210
8.2 Fee and commission income and expense 14 210
8.3 Net gains/(losses) from trading 15 210
8.4 Dividend income 15, 16, & 17 210
8.5 Leases 210
8.6 Rental income and expenses 211
9. Significant Accounting Policies – Income Tax Expense 211
9.1 Current tax 47 211
9.2 Deferred tax 48 211
9.3 Tax exposures 211
9.4 Crop Insurance Levy (CIL) 211
9.5 Withholding tax on dividends distributed by the Bank, Subsidiaries and Associates 211
9.6 Economic Service Charge (ESC) 211
9.7 Value Added Tax on Financial Services 211
9.8 Nation Building Tax on Financial Services (NBT) 211
10. Significant Accounting Policies – Statement of Cash Flows 211
10.1 Statement of Cash Flows 211

6. Significant Accounting Policies – General

6.1 Basis of Consolidation

The Group’s Financial Statements comprise, Consolidated Financial Statements of the Bank and its Subsidiaries in terms of the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – SLFRS 10 on ‘Consolidated Financial Statements’ and the proportionate share of the profit or loss and net assets of its Associates in terms of the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 28 on ‘Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures’. The Bank’s Financial Statements comprise the amalgamation of the Financial Statements of the Domestic Banking Unit, the Off-Shore Banking Centre and the international operations of the Bank.

6.1.1 Business Combinations

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method when control is transferred to the Group. The consideration transferred in the acquisition and identifiable net assets acquired are measured at fair value. Any goodwill that arises is tested annually for impairment (Refer Note 7.5 on page 207). Any gain on a bargain purchase is recognised in profit or loss immediately. Transaction costs are expensed as incurred, except if they are related to the issue of debt or equity securities.

The consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships. Such amounts are generally recognised in profit or loss.

Any contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the date of acquisition. If an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument is classified as equity, then it is not re-measured and settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognised in profit or loss.

6.1.2 Non-Controlling Interests (NCI)

Details of NCI are given in Note 58 on page 304.

6.1.3 Subsidiaries

Details of the Bank’s Subsidiaries and their contingencies are set out in Notes 37 and 59.4 (a) on pages 260 to 262 and 306.

6.1.4 Loss of Control

When the Group loses control over a Subsidiary, it derecognises the assets and liabilities of the Subsidiary, and any related NCI and other components of equity. Any resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss. Any interest retained in the former subsidiary is measured at fair value when control is lost.

Subsequently, it is accounted for as an Associate or in accordance with the Group’s Accounting Policy for financial instruments depending on the level of influence retained.

6.1.5 Associates

Details of Associates together with their fair values and the Group’s share of contingent liabilities of such Associates are set out in Notes 38 and 59.4 (b) on pages 262 to 264 and 306.

6.1.6 Transactions Eliminated on Consolidation

Intra-group balances, transactions, and any unrealised income and expenses (except for foreign currency transaction gains or losses) arising from intra-group transactions are eliminated in preparing the Consolidated Financial Statements. Unrealised gains arising from transactions with equity accounted investees are eliminated against the investment to the extent of the Group’s interest in the investee. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.

6.1.7 Material Gains or Losses, Provisional Values or Error Corrections

There were no material gains or losses, provisional values or error corrections recognised during the year in respect of business combinations that took place in previous periods.

6.2 Foreign Currency

6.2.1 Foreign Currency Transactions and Balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the Functional Currency, which is Sri Lankan Rupees, using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. In this regard, the Bank’s practice is to use the middle rate of exchange ruling at the date of the transaction.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the Reporting date are translated into the Functional Currency at the middle exchange rate of the Functional Currency ruling as at the Reporting date. The foreign currency gain or loss on monetary items is the difference between amortised cost in the Functional Currency as at the beginning of the year adjusted for effective interest and payments during the year and the amortised cost in foreign currency translated at the exchange rate as at the Reporting date.

Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at fair value are translated into the Functional Currency at the spot exchange rate at the date that the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate as at the date of the transaction.

Foreign currency differences arising on translation are generally recognised in profit or loss. However, foreign currency differences arising from the translation of the following items are recognised in OCI:

    Available-for-sale equity instruments; or A financial liability designated as a hedge of the net investment in a foreign operation to the extent that the hedge is effective; and Qualifying cash flow hedges to the extent that the hedge is effective.

6.2.2 Foreign Currency Translations

The Group’s Consolidated Financial Statements are presented in Sri Lankan Rupees, which is also the Bank’s Functional Currency. The Financial Statements of the Off-Shore Banking Centre of the Bank and the Financial Statements of the Foreign Operations of the Bank have been translated into the Group’s Presentation Currency as explained under Notes 6.2.3 and 6.2.4 below.

6.2.3 Transactions of the Off-Shore Banking Centre

These are recorded in accordance with Note 6.2.1 above, except the application of the annual weighted average exchange rate for translation of the Income Statement and the Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income. Net gains and losses are dealt through the Profit or Loss.

6.2.4 Foreign Operations

The results and financial position of overseas operations that have a Functional Currency different from the Bank’s Presentation Currency are translated into the Bank’s Presentation Currency as follows:

    Assets and liabilities, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on acquisition, are translated at the rates of exchange ruling as at the Reporting date. Income and expenses are translated at the average exchange rate for the period, unless this average rate is not a reasonable approximation of the rate prevailing at the transaction date, in which case income and expenses are translated at the exchange rates ruling at the transaction date. All resulting exchange differences are recognised in the OCI and accumulated in the Foreign Currency Translation Reserve (Translation Reserve), which is a separate component of Equity, except to the extent that the translation difference is allocated to the NCI.

When a Foreign Operation is disposed of such that the control is lost, the cumulative amount in the Translation Reserve related to that foreign operation is reclassified to profit or loss as part of the gain or loss on disposal. If the Group disposes of only part of its interest in a subsidiary that includes a Foreign Operation while retaining control, then the relevant proportion of the cumulative amount of the Translation Reserve is reattributed to NCI.

7. Significant Accounting Policies – Recognition of Assets and Liabilities

7.1 Financial Instruments – Initial Recognition, Classification and Subsequent Measurement

7.1.1 Date of Recognition

The Group initially recognises loans and advances, deposits and subordinated liabilities, etc. on the date on which they are originated. All other financial instruments (including regular-way purchases and sales of financial assets) are recognised on the trade date, which is the date on which the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

7.1.2 Initial Measurement of Financial Instruments

The classification of financial instruments at initial recognition depends on their purpose and characteristics and the Management’s intention in acquiring them. (Please refer Notes 7.1.3 and 7.1.4 for further details on classification of financial instruments).

All financial instruments are measured initially at their fair value plus transaction costs that are directly attributable to acquisition or issue of such financial instrument, except in the case of financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss as per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 39 on ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’.

Transaction cost in relation to financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are dealt with through the Income Statement.

7.1.2.1 ‘Day 1’ Profit or Loss on Employee Below Market Loans

When the transaction price differs from the fair value of other observable current market transactions in the same instrument, or based on a valuation technique whose variables include only data from observable markets, the Group recognises the difference between the transaction price and fair value (a ‘Day 1’ profit or loss) in ‘Interest Income and Personnel Expenses’. In cases where fair value is determined using data which is not observable, the difference between the transaction price and model value is only recognised in the profit or loss when the inputs become observable, or when the instrument is derecognised. The ‘Day 1 loss’ arising in the case of loans granted to employees at concessionary rates under uniformly applicable schemes is deferred and amortised using Effective Interest Rates (EIR) over the remaining service period of the employees or tenure of the loan whichever is shorter.

Refer Note 8.1 on page 210.

7.1.3 Classification and Subsequent Measurement of Financial Assets

Group classifies financial assets into one of the following categories:

    Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, and within this category as –

• held-for-trading; or

• designated at fair value through profit or loss;

    Loans and receivables; Held-to-maturity; and Available-for-sale.

The subsequent measurement of financial assets depends on their classification.

Please refer Note 25 on pages 229 to 232 for details on different types of financial assets recognised on the Statement of Financial Position.

7.1.3.1 Financial Assets at Fair Value through Profit or Loss

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss include financial assets held-for-trading and financial assets designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss which are discussed in Notes 7.1.3.1.1 and 7.1.3.1.2 below:

7.1.3.1.1 Financial Assets – Held-for-Trading

Details of ‘Financial assets – Held-for-trading’ are given in Note 31 on pages 241 to 244.

Derivatives Recorded at Fair Value through Profit or Loss

Details of ‘Derivative financial assets’ recorded at fair value through profit or loss are given in Note 30 on page 240.

7.1.3.1.2 Financial Assets Designated at Fair Value through Profit or Loss

The Group designates financial assets at fair value through profit or loss in the following circumstances:

    the assets are managed, evaluated and reported internally on a fair value basis; or the designation eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch, which would otherwise have arisen; or the asset contains an embedded derivative that significantly modifies the cash flows which would otherwise have been required under the contract.

Financial assets designated at fair value through profit or loss are recorded in the Statement of Financial Position at fair value. Changes in fair value are recorded in ‘Net gain or loss on financial assets and liabilities designated at fair value through profit or loss’. Interest earned is accrued in ‘Interest Income’, using the EIR, while dividend income is recorded in ‘other operating income’ when the right to receive the payment has been established.

The Group has not designated any financial assets upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss.

7.1.3.1.3 Embedded Derivatives

Derivatives may be embedded in another contractual arrangement (a host contract). The Group accounts for an embedded derivative separately from the host contract when:

    the host contract was not itself carried at Fair Value through Profit or Loss; the terms of the embedded derivative would have met the definition of a derivative if they were contained in a separate contract; and the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative were not closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract.

Separated embedded derivatives are measured at fair value, with all changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss unless they formed part of a qualifying cash flow or net investment hedging relationship. Separated embedded derivatives are presented in the Statement of Financial Position together with the host contract.

7.1.3.2 Loans and Receivables to Banks and Other Customers

Loans and receivable to banks and other customers include amounts due from banks, loans & advances and lease receivable of the Group.

Details of ‘Loans and receivables to banks and other customers’ are given in Notes 32 and 33 on pages 244 to 251.

7.1.3.2.1 Securities Purchased Under Resale Agreements (Reverse Repos)

When the Group purchases a financial asset and simultaneously enters into an agreement to resale the asset (or a similar asset) at a fixed price on a future date (Reverse Repo), the arrangement is accounted for as a financial asset in the Statement of Financial Position reflecting the transaction’s economic substance as a loan granted by the Group. Subsequent to initial recognition, these securities issued are measured at amortised cost using the EIR with the corresponding interest receivable being recognised as interest income in profit or loss.

Details of ‘Securities purchased under resale agreements’ are given in the Statement of Financial Position on page 185.

7.1.3.3 Other Financial Investments Classified as Loans and Receivables

Details of ‘Financial investments - Loans and receivables’ are given in Note 36 on pages 258 to 260.

7.1.3.4 Financial Investments – Available-for-Sale

Details of ‘Financial investments – Available-for-sale’ are given in Note 34 on pages 251 to 257.

7.1.3.5 Financial Investments – Held-to-Maturity

Details of ‘Financial investments – Held-to-maturity’ are given in Note 35 on page 257.

7.1.3.6 Cash and Cash Equivalents

Details of ‘Cash and cash equivalents’ are given in Note 27 to the Financial Statements on page 238.

7.1.3.7 Balances with Central Banks

Details of ‘Balances with Central Banks’ are given in Note 28 to the Financial Statements on pages 238 and 239.

7.1.4 Classification and Subsequent Measurement of Financial Liabilities

Group classifies financial liabilities into one of the following categories:

    Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, and within this category as –

• Held-for-trading; or

• Designated at fair value through profit or loss;

    Financial liabilities at amortised cost.

The subsequent measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification.

Please refer Notes 7.1.4.1 and as detailed below:

7.1.4.1 Financial Liabilities at Fair Value through Profit or Loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held-for-trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Refer Notes 7.1.4.1.1 and 7.1.4.1.2 below:

7.1.4.1.1 Financial Liabilities Held-for-Trading

Details of ‘Derivative financial liabilities’ are given in Note 44 on page 281.

7.1.4.1.2 Financial Liabilities Designated at Fair Value through Profit or Loss

Financial liabilities designated at fair value through profit or loss are recorded in the Statement of Financial Position at fair value. Changes in fair value are recorded in ‘Net gain or loss on financial assets and liabilities designated at fair value through profit or loss’. Interest paid/payable is accrued in ‘Interest expense’, using the EIR.

The Group has not designated any financial liabilities upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss.

7.1.4.2 Financial Liabilities at Amortised Cost

Financial instruments issued by the Group that are not designated at fair value through profit or loss are classified as liabilities under ‘Due to banks’, ‘Due to Other Customers/Deposits from Customers’, ‘Securities sold under repurchase agreements’, or ‘Subordinated liabilities’ as appropriate, where the substance of the contractual arrangement results in the Group having an obligation either to deliver cash or another financial asset to the holder, or to satisfy the obligation other than by the exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of own equity shares. The Group classifies capital instruments as financial liabilities or equity instruments in accordance with the substance of the contractual terms of the instrument.

After initial recognition, such financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR.

The EIR amortisation is included in ‘Interest expense’ in the Income Statement. Gains and losses too are recognised in the Income Statement when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

7.1.4.2.1 Due to Banks

Details of the ‘Due to banks’ are given in Note 43 on page 280.

7.1.4.2.2 Due to Other Customers/Deposits from Customers

Details of ‘Due to other customers/deposits from customers’ are given in Note 45 on pages 281 and 282.

7.1.4.2.3 Subordinated Liabilities

Details of ‘Subordinated liabilities’ are given in Note 52 on pages 294 and 295.

7.1.4.2.4 Securities Sold Under Repurchase Agreements (Repos)

When the Group sells a financial asset and simultaneously enters into an agreement to repurchase the asset (or a similar asset) at a fixed price on a future date (Repos), the arrangement is accounted for as a financial liability in the Statement of Financial Position reflecting the transaction’s economic substance as a deposit. Subsequent to initial recognition, these securities are measured at amortised cost using the EIR with the corresponding interest payable being recognised as interest expense in profit or loss.

Details of ‘Securities sold under repurchase agreements (Repos)’ are given in the Statement of Financial Position on page 185.

7.1.5 Reclassification of Financial Assets and Liabilities

Financial assets are not re classified subsequent to their initial recognition, except in the period after the Group changes its business model for managing financial assets. The Group reclassifies financial assets and liabilities into and out of the different categories of financial instruments as permitted by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 39 on ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’.

7.1.5.1 Reclassification of Financial Instruments at ‘Fair value through profit or loss’

The Group does not reclassify financial instruments out of the fair value through profit or loss category while it is held or issued. Non-derivative financial assets and liabilities designated at fair value through profit or loss upon initial recognition are not reclassified subsequently out of fair value through profit or loss category.

The Group may in rare circumstances, reclassify financial instruments out fair value through profit or loss category, if such instruments are no longer held for the purpose of selling or repurchasing in the near term notwithstanding that such financial instruments may have been acquired for the purpose of selling or repurchasing in the near term.

Financial assets classified as fair value through profit or loss at the initial recognition which would have also met the definition of ‘loans and receivable’ as at that date is reclassified out of the fair value through profit or loss category only if the Group has the intention or ability to hold such asset for the foreseeable future or until maturity.

Fair value of financial instrument at the date of reclassification becomes the new cost or new amortised cost of the financial instrument. Any gain or loss already recognised in respect of the reclassified financial instrument until the date of reclassification is not reversed to the Income Statement.

If financial asset is reclassified and if the Group subsequently increases its estimate of future cash receipts as a result of increased recoverability of those cash receipts, the effect of such increase is recognised as an adjustments to the EIR from the date of the change in estimate rather than an adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset at the date of change in estimates.

The Group does not reclassify any financial instrument into the ‘Fair value through profit or loss’ category after initial recognition.

7.1.5.2 Reclassification of Financial investments – Available-for-Sale

The Group may reclassify financial investments out of available-for-sale category as a result of change in intention or ability or in rare circumstances that a reliable measure of fair value is no longer available.

For a financial asset with a fixed maturity reclassified out of the ‘available-for-sale’ category, any previous gain or loss on that asset that has been recognised in equity is amortised to profit or loss over the remaining life of the asset using the EIR. Any difference between the new amortised cost and the expected cash flows is also amortised over the remaining life of the asset using the EIR. In the case of a financial asset that does not have a fixed maturity, the gain or loss is recognised in the profit or loss when such financial asset is sold or disposed of. If the financial asset is subsequently determined to be impaired, then the amount recorded in equity is recycled to profit or loss. If a financial asset is reclassified and if the Group subsequently increases its estimates of future cash receipts as a result of increased recoverability of those cash receipts, the effect of that increase is recognised as an adjustment to the EIR from the date of the change in estimate.

7.1.5.3 Reclassification of Financial Investments – Held-to-Maturity

As a result of a change in intention or ability, if it is no longer appropriate to classify an investment as held-to-maturity, Group may reclassify such financial asset as available-for-sale and remeasured at fair value. Any difference between the carrying value of the financial asset before reclassification and fair value is recognised in equity through other comprehensive income (OCI).

However, if the Group were to sell or reclassify more than an insignificant amount of held-to-maturity financial investments before maturity (other than in certain specific circumstances permitted in the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 39 on ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’), the entire category would be tainted and would have to be reclassified as available-for-sale. Furthermore, the Group would be prohibited from classifying any financial asset as held-to-maturity during the following two years.

The above reclassifications at the election of the Management and is determined on an instrument-by-instrument basis.

7.1.6 Derecognition of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities

7.1.6.1 Financial Assets

The Group derecognises a financial asset (or where applicable a part of thereof) when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Group neither transfers nor retains substantially all risks and rewards of ownership and it does not retain control of the financial asset.

On derecognition of a financial asset, the difference between the carrying amount of the asset (or the carrying amount allocated to the portion of the asset derecognised) and the sum of the consideration received (including any new asset obtained less any new liability assumed) and any cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in OCI is recognised in profit or loss. Any interest in transferred financial assets that qualify for derecognition that is created or retained by the Group is recognised as a separate asset or liability.

The Group enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its Statement of Financial Position, but retains either all or substantially all risks and rewards of the transferred assets or a portion of them. In such cases, the transferred assets are not derecognised. Examples of such transactions are securities lending and sale and repurchase transactions.

When assets are sold to a third party with a concurrent total rate of return swap on the transferred assets, the transaction is accounted for as a secured financing transaction similar to sale and repurchase transactions because the Group retains all or substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of such assets.

When the Group has transferred its right to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement and has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset nor transferred control of the asset, the asset is recognised to the extent of the Group’s continuing involvement in the asset. In that case, the Group also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on the basis that reflected the rights and obligations that the Group has retained.

In certain transactions, the Group retains the obligation to service the transferred financial asset for a fee. The transferred asset is derecognised, if it meets the derecognition criteria. An asset or liability is recognised for the servicing contract, if the servicing fee is more than adequate (asset) or is less than adequate (liability) for performing the servicing.

7.1.6.2 Financial Liabilities

The Group derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled or expired.

Where an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference between the carrying value of the original financial liability and the consideration paid is recognised in profit or loss.

7.1.7 Offsetting of Financial Instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount reported in the Statement of Financial Position if, and only if, there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

Income and expenses are presented on a net basis only when permitted under SLFRSs, or for gains and losses arising from a group of similar transactions such as in the Group’s trading activity.

7.1.8 Amortised Cost Measurement

An ‘amortised cost’ of a financial asset or financial liability is the amount at which the financial asset or liability is measured at initial recognition, minus principal repayments, plus or minus the cumulative amortisation using the EIR method of any difference between the initial amount recognised and the maturity amount, minus any reduction for impairment.

7.1.9 Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair value measurement of financial instruments including the fair value hierarchy is explained in Notes 4 and 26 on pages 199 and 233.

7.1.10 Identification and Measurement of Impairment of Financial Assets

At each Reporting date, the Group assesses whether there is objective evidence that financial assets not carried at fair value through profit or loss are impaired. A financial asset or a group of financial assets is ‘impaired’ when objective evidence demonstrates that a loss event has occurred after the initial recognition of the asset(s) and that the loss event has an impact on the future cash flows of the asset(s) that can be estimated reliably.

Objective evidence that financial assets (including equity securities) are impaired can include:

    significant financial difficulty of the borrower or issuer; reschedulement of credit facilities; default or delinquency by a borrower; restructuring of a loan or advance by the Group on terms that the Group would not otherwise consider; indications that a borrower or issuer will enter bankruptcy; the disappearance of an active market for a security; or other observable data relating to a group of assets such as adverse changes in the payment status of borrowers or issuers in the Group or economic conditions that correlate with defaults in the Group.

In addition, for an investment in an equity security, a significant or prolonged decline in its fair value below its cost is considered as an objective evidence of impairment.

7.1.10.1 Impairment of Financial Assets Carried at Amortised Cost

Details of the individual and collective assessment of impairments are given in Note 18 on pages 220 to 222.

7.1.10.2 Impairment of Financial Investments – Available-for-Sale

For available-for-sale financial investments, the Group assesses at each Reporting date whether there is objective evidence that an investment is impaired.

In the case of debt instruments classified as available-for-sale, the Group assesses individually whether there is objective evidence of impairment based on the same criteria as financial assets carried at amortised cost. However, the amount recorded for impairment is the cumulative loss measured as the difference between the amortised cost and the current fair value, less any impairment loss on that investment previously recognised in profit or loss. Future interest income is based on the reduced carrying amount/impaired balance and is accrued using the rate of interest used to discount the future cash flows for the purpose of measuring the impairment loss. The interest income on such assets is also recorded within ‘Interest income’.

In the case of equity investments classified as available-for-sale, objective evidence would also include a ‘significant’ or ‘prolonged’ decline in the fair value of the investment below its cost. In general, the Group considers a decline of 20% to be ‘significant’ and a period of nine months to be ‘prolonged’. However, in specific circumstances a smaller decline or a shorter period may be appropriate. Where there is evidence of impairment, the cumulative impairment loss on that investment previously recognised in Equity through the OCI is removed from Equity and charged to profit or loss.

If, in a subsequent period, the fair value of an impaired available-for-sale debt instrument increases and the increase can be objectively related to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised, then such impairment loss is reversed through profit or loss; otherwise, any increase in fair value is recognised through OCI. Any subsequent recovery in the fair value of an available-for-sale equity instrument is always recognised in OCI.

The Group writes-off certain financial investments – available-for-sale, either partially or in full and any related provision for impairment losses, when the Group determines that there is no realistic prospect of recovery.

7.2 Non-Current Assets Held-for-Sale and Disposal Groups

The Group intends to recover the value of Non-current Assets and disposal groups classified as held-for-sale as at the Reporting date principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is regarded as met only when the sale is highly probable and the asset or disposal group is available-for-sale in its present condition, Management has committed to the sale and the sale is expected to have been completed within one year from the date of classification.

As per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – SLFRS 5 on ‘Non-current Assets Held-for-Sale and Discontinued Operations’, these assets are measured at the lower of the carrying amount and fair value, less costs to sell. Thereafter, the Group assesses at each Reporting date or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the investment or a group of investment is impaired. The Group recognises an impairment loss for any initial or subsequent write down of the assets to fair value less costs to sell and also recognises a gain for any subsequent increase in fair value less costs to sell of an asset, only to the extent of the cumulative impairment losses that have been recognised previously. Impairment loss is first allocated to goodwill, and then to the remaining assets and liabilities on a pro rata basis, except that no loss is allocated to financial assets, deferred tax assets or employee benefit assets which continue to be measured in accordance with the Group’s other accounting policies. As a result, once classified, the Group neither amortises nor depreciates the assets classified as held-for-sale.

In the Income Statement of the Reporting period and of the comparable period of the previous year, income and expenses from discontinued operations are reported separately from income and expenses from continuing operations, down to the level of profit after taxes, even when the Group retains a NCI in a Subsidiary after the sale. The resulting profit or loss (after taxes) is reported separately in the Income Statement.

7.3 Property, Plant & Equipment

Details of ‘Property, Plant & Equipment’ are given in Note 39 on pages 265 to 276.

7.3.1 Depreciation

Details of ‘Depreciation’ are given in Note 20 on pages 222 and 223.

7.3.2 Borrowing Costs

As per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 23 on ‘Borrowing Costs’, the Group capitalises borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset as part of the cost of the asset. A qualifying asset is an asset which takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. Other borrowing costs are recognised in the profit or loss in the period in which they occur.

7.4 Intangible Assets

Details of ‘Intangible assets’ are given in Note 40 on pages 277 to 279.

Amortisation recognised during the year in respect of intangible assets is included under the item of ‘Amortisation of intangible assets’ under ‘Depreciation and amortisation’ in profit or loss.

Refer Note 20 on pages 222 and 223.

7.5 Impairment of Non-Financial Assets

At each Reporting date, the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its non-financial assets (other than investment properties and deferred tax assets) to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. Goodwill is tested annually for impairment.

For impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that is largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs. Goodwill arising from a business combination is allocated to CGUs or groups of CGUs that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.

The ‘recoverable amount’ of an asset or CGU is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. ‘Value in use’ is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or CGU.

An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount.

The Group’s corporate assets do not generate separate cash inflows and are used by more than one CGU. Corporate assets are allocated to CGUs on a reasonable and consistent basis and tested for impairment as part of the testing of the CGUs to which the corporate assets are allocated.

Impairment losses are recognised in profit or loss. They are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets in the CGU on a pro rata basis.

An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. For other assets, an impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.

7.6 Dividends Payable

Dividends on ordinary shares are recognised as a liability and deducted from equity when they are recommended and declared by the Board of Directors and approved by the shareholders. Interim dividends are deducted from Equity when they are declared and no longer at the discretion of the Bank.

Dividends for the year, that are approved after the Reporting date and not provided for, are disclosed as an event after the Reporting period in accordance with the

Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 10 on ‘Events after the Reporting Period’ in Note 70.1 on page 352.

7.7 Employee Benefits

7.7.1 Defined Benefit Plans (DBPs)

A Defined Benefit Plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a Defined Contribution Plan as defined in the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 19 on ‘Employee Benefits’.

7.7.1.1 Defined Benefit Pension Plans
7.7.1.1.1 Description of the Plans and Employee Groups Covered

The Bank operates three types of Defined Benefit Pension Plans for its employees as described below:

(a) The Bank has an approved Pension Fund, which was established in 1992. As per the Deed of Trust, only those employees who were less than 45 years of age as at January 01, 1992 were covered by the Pension Fund in order to leave a minimum contribution for a period of 10 years before they are eligible to draw pension from the Pension Fund. Further, only the employees who joined the Bank on or before December 31, 2001, were in pensionable service of the Bank;

During 2006, the Bank offered a restructured pension scheme to convert the Defined Benefit Plan (DBP) to a Defined Contribution Plan (DCP) for the pensionable employees of the Bank and over 99% of them accepted it. As a result, the above Pension Fund now covers only those employees who did not opt for the restructured pension scheme and those employees who were covered by the Pension Fund previously but retired before the restructured pension scheme came into effect;

(b) Provision for pensions has been made for those employees who retired on or before December 31, 2001, and on whose behalf the Bank could not make contributions to the Retirement Pension Fund for more than 10 years. This liability although not funded has been provided for in full in the Financial Statements;

(c) Provision has been made in the Financial Statements for Retirement Gratuity from the first year of service for all employees who joined the Bank on or after January 01, 2002, as they are not in pensionable service of the Bank under either the DBP or DCP. However, if any of these employees resign before retirement, the Bank is liable to pay gratuity to such employees. This liability although not funded has been provided for in full in the Financial Statements.

The Subsidiaries of the Bank do not operate Pension Funds.

The Bank’s net obligation in respect of Defined Benefit Pension Plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, discounting that amount and deducting the fair value of any plan assets, as per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 19 on ‘Employee Benefits’ as detailed in Note 50 on pages 286 to 294.

The past service cost is recognised as an expense on a straight-line basis over the period until the benefits become vested. If the benefits are already vested following the introduction of, or changes to, a pension plan, past service cost is recognised immediately.

7.7.1.1.2 Recognition of Actuarial Gains or Losses

Actuarial gains or losses are recognised in the OCI in the period in which they arise.

7.7.1.1.3 Recognition of Retirement Benefit Obligation

The defined benefit asset or liability comprises the present value of the defined benefit obligation, less past service cost not yet recognised and less the fair value of plan assets out of which the obligations are to be settled directly. The value of any asset is restricted to the sum of any past service cost not yet recognised and the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plan or reductions in the future contributions to the plan.

The calculation of defined benefit obligations is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the Projected Unit Credit Method. When the calculation results in a potential asset for the Group, the recognised asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. To calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any applicable minimum funding requirements.

Remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability, which comprises actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised immediately in OCI. The Group determines the net interest expense (income) on the net defined benefit liability (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the then net-defined benefit liability (asset), taking into account any changes in the net-defined benefit liability (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognised in profit or loss.

When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognised immediately in profit or loss. The Group recognises gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.

Amounts recognised in profit or loss as expenses on DBPs and provisions made on DBPs together with the details of valuation methods are given in Notes 19 and 50 on pages 222 and 286 to 294, respectively.

7.7.2 Defined Contribution Plans (DCPs)

A Defined Contribution Plan is a post-employment plan under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligations to pay a further amount. Obligations to DCPs are recognised in the profit or loss as the related service is provided. Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available. The Group has three such plans as explained in Notes 7.7.2.1, 7.7.2.2 and 7.7.2.3.

Amounts recognised in profit or loss as expenses on DCPs are given in Note 19 on page 222.

7.7.2.1 Defined Contribution Pension Plan

As explained in Note 7.7.1.1.1(a), during 2006, the Bank restructured its pension scheme which was a DBP to a DCP. This restructured plan was offered on a voluntary basis to the eligible employees of the Bank. The scheme provides for lump sum payments instead of commuted/monthly pensions to the eligible employees at the point of their separation, in return for surrendering their pension rights. The lump sum offered consisted of a past service package and a future service package. The shortfall on account of the past service package in excess of the funds available in the Pension Fund was borne by the Bank in 2006.

The future service package includes monthly contributions to be made by the Bank for the employees who accepted the offer, to be made during their remaining period of service, at predetermined contribution rates to be applied on their salaries, which are estimated to increase for this purpose at 10% p.a. based on the salary levels that prevailed as at the date of implementation of this scheme. In addition, interest to be earned on the assets of the DCP is also allocated to the employees who opted for the restructured scheme.

The assets of this Fund are held separately from those of the Bank and are independently administered by the Trustees as per the provisions of the Trust Deed.

7.7.2.2 Employees’ Provident Fund

The Bank and employees contribute to an approved Private Provident Fund at 12% and 8% respectively, on the salaries of each employee. Other entities of the Group and their employees contribute at the same percentages as above to the Employees’ Provident Fund managed by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

7.7.2.3 Employees’ Trust Fund

The Bank and other entities of the Group contribute at the rate of 3% of the salaries of each employee to the Employees’ Trust Fund managed by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

7.7.3 Other Long-Term Employee Benefits

The Group’s net obligation in respect of long-term employee benefits other than pension plans is the amount of future benefits that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. That benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any related assets is deducted. The discount rate used as the yield as at the Reporting date is the current market rate that has been extrapolated to reflect long-term rate of discount based on market rates of interest on short-term Corporate/Government Bonds and anticipated long-term rate of inflation. The calculation is performed using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Remeasurements are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise.

The Group does not have any other long-term employee benefit plans.

7.7.4 Terminal Benefits

Termination benefits are expensed at the earlier of when the Group can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the Group recognises costs for a restructuring. If benefits are not expected to be wholly settled within 12 months of the Reporting date, then they are discounted.

7.7.5 Short-Term Employee Benefits

Short-term employee benefits are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid if the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.

7.7.6 Share-Based Payment Arrangements

Share-based payment arrangements in which the Group receives services as consideration for its own equity instruments are accounted for as equity-settled share-based payment transactions, regardless of how the equity instruments are obtained by the Group. Senior Executive Employees of the Group receive remuneration in the form of share-based payment transactions, whereby employees render services as consideration for equity instruments (equity-settled transactions). The Group does not operate any cash-settled share-based payment transactions.

The Group applies the requirements of the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – SLFRS 2 on ‘Share-based Payment’ in accounting for equity-settled share-based payment transactions, if any, that were granted after January 01, 2012 and had not vested at the same date. As per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – SLFRS 2 on ‘Share-based Payment’, on the grant date fair value of equity-settled share-based payment awards (i.e., share options) granted to employees is recognised as personnel expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period in which the employees unconditionally become entitled to the awards. The amount recognised as an expense is adjusted to reflect the number of share awards for which the related service and non-market performance vesting conditions are expected to be met, so that the amount ultimately recognised as an expense is based on the number of share awards that do meet the related service and non-market performance conditions at the vesting date. For share-based payment awards with non-vesting conditions, the grant date fair value of the share-based payment is measured to reflect such conditions and there is no true-up for differences between expected and actual outcomes.

The Employee Share Option Plan – 2015, which was granted is subjected to the above accounting treatment.

However, the Employee Share Option Plan – 2008 which was granted prior to January 01, 2012, the effective date of the SLFRS 2 was not subjected to the above accounting treatment and the proceeds received during the year by the Group in consideration for shares issued were accounted for as Stated Capital within equity.

The details of Employee Share Option Plans are given in Notes 53.2 and 54 on pages 297 to 300.

The dilutive effect of outstanding options is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted Earnings per Share as disclosed in Note 23.2 on page 227.

7.8 Other Liabilities

Details of ‘Other liabilities’ are given in Note 50 on page 286.

7.9 Provisions

Details of ‘Other provisions’ are given in Note 49 on page 285.

7.10 Restructuring

Provision for restructuring is recognised when the Group has approved a detailed and formal restructuring plan, and the restructuring either has commenced or has been announced publicly. Future operating losses arising on such restructuring are not provided for.

The Group does not have any provision for restructuring as at the Reporting date.

7.11 Onerous Contracts

A provision for onerous contracts is recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Group from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Group recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

The Group does not have any onerous contracts as at the Reporting date.

7.12 Bank Levies

A provision for bank levies is recognised when the condition that triggers the payment of the levy is met. If a levy obligation is subject to a minimum activity threshold so that the obligating event is reaching a minimum activity, then a provision is recognised when that minimum activity threshold is reached.

7.13 Financial Guarantees and Loan Commitments

‘Financial guarantees’ are contracts that require the Group to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss that it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment when it is due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. ‘Loan commitments’ are firm commitments to provide credit under pre-specified terms and conditions.

Liabilities arising from financial guarantees or commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate are initially measured at fair value and the initial fair value is amortised over the life of the guarantee or the commitment. The liability is subsequently carried at the higher of this amortised amount and the present value of any expected payment to settle the liability when a payment under the contract has become probable.

The Group has issued no loan commitment that are measured at FVTPL. The Group recognises a provision in accordance with the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 37 on ‘Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets’, if the contract was considered to be onerous. Liabilities arising from financial guarantees and loan commitments are included within provisions.

7.14 Commitments

All discernible risks are accounted for in determining the amount of known liabilities as explained in Note 7.9 above.

Details of the Commitments are given in Notes 59.2 and 59.3 on pages 305 and 306.

7.15 Contingent Liabilities and Commitments

A detailed list of ‘Contingent liabilities and commitments’ and ‘Litigation against the Bank and the Group’ are given in Notes 59 and 61 on pages 304 to 307.

7.16 Stated Capital and Reserves

Details of the ‘Stated capital and reserves’ are given in Notes 53, 55, 56 and 57 to the Financial Statements on pages 296 to 298 and 300 to 303

7.17 Earnings Per Share (EPS)

Details of ‘Basic and Diluted EPS’ are given in Note 23 on pages 226 and 227.

7.18 Operating Segments

Details of ‘Operating segments’ are given in Note 63 on pages 310 to 312.

7.19 Fiduciary Assets

The Bank provides trust and other fiduciary services that result in the holding or investing of assets on behalf of its clients. Assets held in a fiduciary capacity are not reported in these Financial Statements as they do not belong to the Bank.

8. Significant Accounting Policies – Recognition of Income and Expense

Details of ‘Income and expense’ are given in Notes 12 to 21 on pages 214 to 224.

8.1 Interest Income and Expense

Details of ‘Interest income and expense’ are given in Note 13 on pages 214 to 217.

8.2 Fee and Commission Income and Expense

Details of ‘Commission income and expense’ are given in Note 14 on pages 217 and 218.

8.3 Net Gains/(Losses) from Trading

Details of ‘Net gains/(losses) from trading’ are given in Note 15 on page 218.

8.4 Dividend Income

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive income is established. Usually, this is the ex-dividend date for quoted equity securities.

Dividends are presented in Net gains/losses from trading, Net gains/losses from financial investments or Other income (net) based on the underlying classification of the equity investment.

Details of ‘Dividend income’ are given in Notes 15, 16 and 17 on pages 218 and 219.

8.5 Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is a lease or it contains a lease, is based on the substance of the arrangement and requires an assessment of whether the fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset.

8.5.1 Finance Leases

8.5.1.1 Finance Leases – Group as a Lessee

Finance leases that transfer substantially all risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased item to the Group are classified as finance leases and capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Group will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

8.5.1.2 Finance Leases – Group as a Lessor

When the Group is the lessor under a lease agreement that transfers substantially all of the risks and rewards incidental to the ownership of the asset to the lessee, the net investment in lease (i.e. after deduction of unearned charges) are included in ‘loans and advances to banks’ or ‘loans and advances to other customers’, as appropriate. The finance income receivable is recognised in ‘interest income’ over the periods of the leases so as to achieve a constant rate of return on the net investment in the leases.

8.5.2 Operating Leases

8.5.2.1 Operating Leases – Group as a Lessee

Assets held under leases other than finance leases are classified as operating leases and are not recognised in the Group’s Statement of Financial Position. Payments made under operating leases are recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease incentives received are recognised as an integral part of the total lease expense, over the term of the lease. Contingent rental payable is recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

8.5.2.2 Operating Leases – Group as a Lessor

Assets leased under leases other than finance leases are classified as operating leases. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating operating leases are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income.

Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.

Details of ‘Operating leases’ are given in Note 68 on page 320.

8.6 Rental Income and Expenses

Rental income and expense are recognised in profit or loss on an accrual basis.

9. Significant Accounting Policies – Income Tax Expense

9.1 Current Tax

Details of ‘Income tax expense’ are given in Note 22 on pages 224 to 226.

9.2 Deferred Tax

Details of ‘Deferred tax assets and liabilities’ are given in Note 48 on pages 283 to 285.

9.3 Tax Exposures

In determining the amount of current and deferred tax, the Group considers the impact of tax exposures, including whether additional taxes and interest may be due. This assessment relies on estimates and assumptions and may involve a series of judgments about future events. New information may become available that causes the Group to change its judgment regarding the adequacy of existing tax liabilities. Such changes to tax liabilities would impact tax expense in the period in which such a determination is made.

9.4 Crop Insurance Levy (CIL)

As per the provisions of the Section 14 of the Finance Act No. 12 of 2013, the CIL was introduced with effect from April 01, 2013 and is payable to the National Insurance Trust Fund. Currently, the CIL is payable at 1% of the profit after tax.

9.5 Withholding Tax on Dividends Distributed by the Bank, Subsidiaries and Associates

9.5.1 Withholding Tax on Dividends Distributed by the Bank

Withholding tax that arises from the distribution of dividends by the Bank is recognised at the time the liability to pay the related dividend is recognised.

9.5.2 Withholding Tax on Dividends Distributed by the Subsidiaries and Associates

Dividends received by the Bank from its Subsidiaries and Associates, have attracted a 10% deduction at source.

9.6 Economic Service Charge (ESC)

As per the provisions of the Finance Act No. 11 of 2004, and amendments thereto, the ESC was introduced with effect from April 01, 2004. Currently, the ESC is payable at 0.25% on ‘Exempt Turnover’ and is deductible from the income tax payments. Unclaimed ESC, if any, can be carried forward and set-off against the income tax payable in the five subsequent years.

9.7 Value Added Tax on Financial Services

The value base for the computation of value added tax on financial services is calculated by adjusting the economic depreciation computed on rates prescribed by the Department of Inland Revenue to the accounting profit before Income Tax and emoluments payable. Emoluments payable include benefits in money and not in money including contribution or provision relating to terminal benefits.

9.8 Nation Building Tax on Financial Services (NBT)

With effect from January 01, 2014, NBT of 2% was introduced on supply of financial services via an amendment to the NBT Act No. 09 of 2009. NBT is chargeable on the same base used for calculation of VAT on financial services as explained in Note 9.7 above.

The amount of Value Added Tax and NBT charged in determining the profit or loss for the period is given in the Income Statement on page 183.

10. Significant Accounting Policies – Statement of Cash Flows

10.1 Statement of Cash Flows

The Statement of Cash Flows is prepared using the ‘Indirect Method’ of preparing cash flows in accordance with the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 7 on ‘Statement of Cash Flows’. Cash and cash equivalents comprise of short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Cash and cash equivalents as referred to in the Statement of Cash Flows are comprised of those items as explained in Note 27 on page 238.

The Statement of Cash Flows is given on page 190.

11. New Accounting Standards Issued But Not Yet Effective

A number of new standards and amendments to standards, which have been issued but not yet effective as at the Reporting date, have not been applied in preparing these Consolidated Financial Statements. Accordingly, the following Accounting Standards have not been applied in preparing these Financial Statements and the Group plans to apply these standards on the respective effective dates:

Accounting Standard Summary of the Requirements Possible Impact on Consolidated Financial Statements
SLFRS 9 – ‘Financial Instruments’ SLFRS 9, issued in 2014, replaces the existing guidance in LKAS 39 – Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. SLFRS 9 contains three principal classification categories for financial assets – i.e. measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI) and fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL). The existing LKAS 39 categories of Held-to-maturity, Loans and receivables and Available-for-sale are removed. SLFRS 9 replaces the ‘incurred loss’ model in LKAS 39 with an ‘expected credit loss’ model. The new model applies to financial assets that are not measured at FVTPL. The model uses a dual measurement approach, under which the loss allowance is measured as either:
    12 month expected credit loss; or Lifetime expected credit losses.
The measurement basis will generally depend on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition. A simplified approach is available for trade receivables, contract assets and lease receivables, allowing or requiring the recognition of lifetime expected credit losses at all times. Special rules apply to assets that are credit impaired at initial recognition. The new standard carried guidance on new general hedge accounting requirements. SLFRS 9 introduces new presentation requirements and extensive new disclosure requirements. Effective date of SLFRS 9 has been deferred till January 01, 2018.
The Group has completed the initial high level assessment of the potential impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements resulting from the application of SLFRS 9 with the assistance of an external consultant. The next phase being the implementation phase, will commence from end February 2017. During this Phase the Group will implement a business model approach and solely payment of principal and interest criteria to ensure that financial assets are classified into the appropriate categories Need to build a model with appropriate methodologies and controls to ensure that judgment exercised to assess recoverability of loans and make robust estimates of expected credit losses and point at which there is significant increase in credit risk. Judgment will need to be applied to ensure that the measurement of expected credit losses reflects reasonable and supportable information. Given the nature of the Group’s operations, this standard is expected to have a pervasive impact on the Group’s Financial Statements. In particular, calculation of impairment of financial instruments on an expected credit loss model is expected to result in an increase in the overall level of impairment allowances.
SLFRS 15 – ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’ SLFRS 15 establishes a comprehensive framework for determining whether, how much and when revenue is recognised. New qualitative and quantitative disclosure requirements aim to enable Financial Statements users to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. Entities will apply five-step model to determine when to recognise revenue and at what amount. The model specified that revenue is recognised when or as an entity transfers control of goods and services to a customer at the amount to which the entity expects to be entitled. Depending on whether certain criteria are met, revenue is recognised. It replaces existing revenue recognition guidance, including LKAS 18 on ‘Revenue’ and LKAS 11 on ‘Construction Contracts’ and IFRIC 13 on ‘Customer Loyalty Programmes’. SLFRS 15 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 01, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Group does not expect significant impact on its Financial Statements resulting from the application of SLFRS 15.
SLFRS 16 – ‘Leases’ SLFRS 16 eliminates the current dual accounting model for lessees which distinguishes between On-Balance Sheet fiancé leases and Off-Balance Sheet operating leases. Instead there will be a single On-Balance Sheet accounting model that is similar to current finance lease accounting. SLFRS 16 is effective for annual Reporting periods beginning on or after January 01, 2019. The Group is assessing the potential impact on its Financial Statements resulting from the application of SLFRS 16.

12. Gross Income

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the revenue can be reliably measured.

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income [Refer Note 13.1] 81,314,607 66,339,317 80,738,176 66,030,456
Fee and commission income [Refer Note 14.1] 8,230,131 6,329,900 8,143,041 6,275,276
Net gains/(losses) from trading [Refer Note 15] (1,466,711) 813,376 (1,466,711) 813,376
Net gains/(losses) from financial investments [Refer Note 16] 110,759 693,987 110,701 693,933
Other income (net) [Refer Note 17] 5,536,749 4,048,817 5,617,403 4,054,911
Total 93,725,535 78,225,397 93,142,610 77,867,952

13. Net Interest Income

Interest income and expense are recognised in profit or loss using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.

Interest income and expense presented in the Income Statement include:

  • Interest on Held-for-trading financial instruments calculated using EIR method;
  • Interest on Loans and receivables calculated using EIR method;
  • Interest on Available-for-sale investments calculated using EIR method;
  • Interest on Held-to-maturity investments calculated using EIR method;
  • Interest on financial liabilities measured at amortised cost calculated using EIR method.

Effective Interest Rate (EIR)

The ‘effective interest rate’ is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments and receipts through the expected life of the financial asset or financial liability (or, where appropriate, a shorter period) to the carrying amount of the financial asset or financial liability.

The calculation of the EIR includes transaction costs and fees and points paid or received that forms an integral part of the EIR. Transaction costs include incremental costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of a financial asset or financial liability.

When calculating the effective interest rate for financial instruments other than credit impaired assets, the Group estimates future cash flows considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument, but not future credit losses. For credit impaired financial assets, a credit adjusted effective interest rate is calculated using estimated future cash flows.

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income [Refer Note 13.1] 81,314,607 66,339,317 80,738,176 66,030,456
Less: Interest expense [Refer Note 13.2] (48,186,331) (35,771,967) (47,914,573) (35,685,172)
Net interest income 33,128,276 30,567,350 32,823,603 30,345,284

13.1 Interest Income

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cash and cash equivalents 219,048 88,573 218,337 88,270
Balances with Central Banks 40,575 336,040 40,504 336,040
Placements with banks 145,504 158,645 145,504 158,645
Securities purchased under resale agreements 352,695 665,897 352,695 665,897
Financial instruments – Held-for-trading 457,308 681,464 457,308 681,464
Derivative financial instruments
Other financial instruments 457,308 681,464 457,308 681,464
Loans and receivables to other customers 58,135,238 43,540,371 57,587,445 43,231,339
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 14,311,753 17,549,260 14,307,559 17,548,160
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 3,757,168 3,731,930
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 3,360,048 3,052,231 3,360,048 3,052,231
Interest income from impaired loans and receivables to other customers 533,528 265,344 533,528 265,344
Other interest income 1,742 1,492 3,318 3,066
Total interest income 81,314,607 66,339,317 80,738,176 66,030,456

13.2 Interest Expense

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Due to banks 1,278,205 593,651 990,560 527,983
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 7,756,308 7,876,715 7,775,316 7,886,186
Due to other customers/deposits from customers 37,176,139 26,034,412 37,174,433 26,040,128
Refinance borrowings 270,977 253,502 270,977 253,502
Foreign currency borrowings 169,353 190,420 169,353 190,420
Subordinated liabilities 1,535,349 823,267 1,533,934 786,953
Total interest expense 48,186,331 35,771,967 47,914,573 35,685,172

13.3 Net Interest Income from Government Securities

Interest income and interest expense on Government Securities given in the Notes 13.3 (a), 13.3 (b) and 13.3 (c) below have been extracted from interest incomes and interest expenses given in Notes 13.1 and 13.2 respectively and disclosed separately, as required by the Guidelines issued by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

13.3 (a) Net Interest Income from Sri Lanka Government Securities

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income 19,870,503 19,303,078 19,866,309 19,301,978
Securities purchased under resale agreements 290,627 600,681 290,627 600,681
Financial instruments – Held-for-trading 351,293 320,011 351,293 320,011
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 13,412,354 16,560,676 13,408,160 16,559,576
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 3,678,099 3,678,099
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 2,138,130 1,821,710 2,138,130 1,821,710
 
Less: Interest expense (7,755,075) (7,883,079) (7,774,082) (7,892,551)
Securities sold under repurchase agreements (7,755,075) (7,883,079) (7,774,082) (7,892,551)
Net interest income 12,115,428 11,419,999 12,092,227 11,409,427
Notional Tax Credit on Secondary Market Transactions

As per the Section 137 of the Inland Revenue Act No. 10 of 2006 and amendments thereto, net interest income of the Group derived from secondary market transactions in Government Securities, Treasury Bills and Treasury Bonds (Interest income accrued or received on outright or reverse repurchase transactions on Government Securities, Treasury Bills and Treasury Bonds less interest expense accrued or paid on repurchase transactions with such Government Securities, Treasury Bills and Treasury Bonds from which such interest income was earned) for the period January 01, 2016 to December 31, 2016 has been grossed up by Rs. 918.062 Mn. (2015 – Rs. 900.495 Mn.) and Rs. 916.767 Mn. (2015 – Rs. 899.563 Mn.) by the Group and the Bank respectively as the notional tax credit, consequent to the interest income on above instruments being subjected to withholding tax.

13.3 (b) Net Interest Income from Bangladesh Government Securities

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income 1,121,313 1,415,253 1,121,313 1,415,253
Securities purchased under resale agreements 62,068 65,216 62,068 65,216
Financial instruments – Held-for-trading 106,015 361,453 106,015 361,453
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 899,399 988,584 899,399 988,584
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 53,831 53,831
 
Less: Interest expense (1,252) (14,786) (1,252) (14,786)
Securities sold under repurchase agreements (1,252) (14,786) (1,252) (14,786)
Net interest income 1,120,061 1,400,467 1,120,061 1,400,467

13.3 (c) Net Interest Income from Maldivian Government Securities

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income 25,238
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 25,238
Net interest income 25,238

14. Net Fee and Commission Income

Fee and commission income and expense that are integral to the EIR of a financial asset or financial liability are capitalised and included in the measurement of the EIR and recognised in the Income Statement over the expected life of the instrument.

Other fee and commission income, including account servicing fees, investment management fees, sales commission, placement fees and syndication fees are recognised as the related services are performed. If a loan commitment is not expected to result in the drawdown of a loan, then the related loan commitment fees are recognised on a straight-line basis over the commitment period.

Other fee and commission expense relate mainly to transaction and service fees, which are expensed as the services are received.

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Fee and commission income [Refer Note 14.1] 8,230,131 6,329,900 8,143,041 6,275,276
Less: Fee and commission expense [Refer Note 14.2] 1,140,954 919,590 1,127,536 901,190
Net fee and commission income 7,089,177 5,410,310 7,015,505 5,374,086

14.1 Fee and Commission Income

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Loans and advances related services 778,517 715,502 715,086 664,269
Credit and debit cards related services 2,671,294 1,849,571 2,671,116 1,849,571
Trade and remittances related services 2,619,429 2,212,916 2,619,194 2,212,916
Deposits related services 1,110,216 562,797 1,109,285 562,860
Guarantees related services 669,497 505,109 669,409 505,109
Other financial services 381,178 484,005 358,951 480,551
Total fee and commission income 8,230,131 6,329,900 8,143,041 6,275,276

14.2 Fee and Commission Expense

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Loans and advances related services 53,289 52,149 39,871 33,749
Credit and debit cards related services 980,927 768,406 980,927 768,406
Trade and remittances related services 32,851 31,826 32,851 31,826
Other financial services 73,887 67,209 73,887 67,209
Total fee and commission expense 1,140,954 919,590 1,127,536 901,190

15. Net Gains/(Losses) from Trading

‘Net gains/(losses) from trading’ comprise gains less losses related to trading assets and trading liabilities and include all realised and unrealised fair value changes, dividends and foreign exchange differences.

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Derivative Financial Instruments (1,429,188) 891,825 (1,429,188) 891,825
Foreign exchange gains/(losses) from banks and other customers (1,429,188) 891,825 (1,429,188) 891,825
Other Financial Instruments – Held-for-Trading
Government Securities (9,042) (72,319) (9,042) (72,319)
Net mark-to-market losses (79,981) (92,831) (79,981) (92,831)
Net capital gains 70,939 20,512 70,939 20,512
Equities (28,481) (6,130) (28,481) (6,130)
Net mark-to-market losses (49,581) (26,452) (49,581) (26,452)
Net capital gains 13,299 11,294 13,299 11,294
Dividend income 7,801 9,028 7,801 9,028
Total (1,466,711) 813,376 (1,466,711) 813,376

16. Net Gains/(Losses) from Financial Investments

Net gains/(losses) from financial investments comprise gains less losses related to Available-for-sale investments, Held-to-maturity investments and Loans and receivables and include all realised and unrealised fair value changes and dividends.

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Financial investments – Available-for-sale [Refer Note 16.1] 75,555 560,715 75,497 560,661
Financial investments – Loans and receivables [Refer Note 16.2] 35,204 133,272 35,204 133,272
Total 110,759 693,987 110,701 693,933

16.1 Financial Investments – Available-for-Sale

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Government Securities 38,091 514,289 38,091 514,289
Net capital gains 38,091 514,289 38,091 514,289
Equities 37,464 46,426 37,406 46,372
Net capital gains
Dividend income 37,464 46,426 37,406 46,372
Total 75,555 560,715 75,497 560,661

16.2 Financial Investments – Loans and Receivables

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Government securities 35,204 133,272 35,204 133,272
Net capital gains 35,204 133,272 35,204 133,272
Total 35,204 133,272 35,204 133,272

17. Other Income (Net)

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Gains/(losses) on sale of property, plant & equipment [Refer Note 17.1] 10,395 (1,334) 1,705 (6,505)
Gains on revaluation of foreign exchange 3,755,346 1,985,444 3,755,047 1,985,444
Recoveries of loans written off and provision reversals 1,589,763 1,874,575 1,589,763 1,874,575
Dividend income from subsidiaries 81,468 81,664
Dividend income from associates 5,808 6,733 4,111 6,166
Profit due to change in ownership 3,047 2,344 3,047 2,344
Rental and other income [Refer Note 17.2] 181,245 190,132 182,262 111,223
Less: Dividends received from associates transferred to investment account (5,808) (6,733)
Less: Profit due to change in ownership (3,047) (2,344)
Total 5,536,749 4,048,817 5,617,403 4,054,911

17.1 Gains/(losses) on sale of Property, Plant & Equipment

The gains or losses on disposal of property, plant & equipment is determined as the difference between the carrying amount of the assets at the time of disposal and the proceeds from disposal, net of incremental disposal costs. This is recognised as an item of ‘Other Income’ in the year in which significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer.

17.2 Rental Income

Rental income is recognised in the profit or loss on an accrual basis.

18. Impairment Charges for Loans and Other Losses

For financial assets carried at amortised cost (such as amounts due from banks, loans and advances to customers as well as held to maturity investments), the Group first assesses whether objective evidence of impairment exists for individually significant financial assets or collectively for financial assets that are not individually significant. Assets that are individually assessed for impairment and for which an impairment loss is not recognised are included in a collective assessment of impairment together with the financial assets that are not individually significant.

Individual Assessment of Impairment

For financial assets above a pre-determined threshold (i.e., for individually significant financial assets), if there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future expected credit losses that have not yet been incurred). The carrying amount of the asset is reduced through the use of a provision account and the amount of impairment loss is recognised in profit or loss. Interest income continues to be accrued and recorded in ‘Interest Income’ on the reduced carrying amount/impaired balance and is accrued using the rate of interest used to discount the future cash flows for the purpose of measuring the impairment loss.

The present value of the estimated future cash flows is discounted at the financial asset’s original EIR. If a loan has a variable interest rate, the discount rate for measuring any impairment loss is the current EIR. If the Bank has reclassified trading assets to loans and advances, the discount rate for measuring any impairment loss is the new EIR determined at the reclassification date. The calculation of the present value of the estimated future cash flows of a collateralised financial asset reflects the cash flows that may result from foreclosure less costs for obtaining and selling the collateral, whether or not foreclosure is probable.

Collective Assessment of Impairment

Those financial assets for which, the Group determines that no provision is required under individual impairment, such financial assets are then collectively assessed for any impairments that have been incurred but not yet identified. For the purpose of a collective evaluation of impairment, financial assets are grouped on the basis of similar risk characteristics such as internal credit ratings, asset type, industry, geographical location, collateral type, past-due status, etc.

Future cash flows on a group of financial assets that are collectively evaluated for impairment, are estimated based on the historical loss experiences of assets with similar credit risk characteristics to those in the group.

The key inputs into the measurement of provision for collective impairment are the term structure of the following variables:

  • Probability of default (PD)
  • Loss given default (LGD)
  • Exposure at default (EAD)

These parameters are generally derived from internally developed statistical models and other historical data.

PD values are estimates at a certain date, which are calculated based on statistical rating models, and assessed using rating tools tailored to the various categories of counter parties and exposures. These statistical models are based on internally compiled data comprising both quantitative and qualitative factors. If a counterparty or exposure migrates between rating classes, then this will lead to a change in the estimate of the associated PD. PDs are estimated considering the contractual maturities of exposures.

LGD is the magnitude of the likely loss in case of default. The Group estimates LGD parameters based on the history of recovery rates of claims against defaulted counterparties. The LGD models consider the structure, collateral, seniority of the claim, counterparty industry and recovery costs of any collateral that is integral to the financial asset. They are calculated on a discounted cash flow basis using the effective interest rate as the discounting factor.

EAD represents the expected exposure in the event of a default or the financial asset’s gross carrying amount.

Historical loss experiences are adjusted based on the current observable data to reflect the effects of current conditions on the historical losses experienced, further removing the effects of conditions that do not exist at the Reporting date. Estimates of changes in future cash flows reflect, and are directionally consistent with the changes in related observable data year-on-year such as changes in;

  • - Interest rates,
  • - Inflation rates,
  • - Growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP),
  • - Global GDP growth rates,
  • - Countries’ Sovereign ratings, ease of doing business Indices,
  • - Exchange rates,
  • - Political stability, and
  • - Portfolio factors including percentage of restructured performing loans.

The methodology and assumptions used for estimating provision for impairment including assumptions for projecting future cash flows are reviewed regularly to reduce any differences between loss estimates and actual loss experiences.

Impairment of Rescheduled Loans and Advances

Where possible, the Bank seeks to reschedule loans and advances rather than to take possession of collateral. If the terms of a financial asset are renegotiated, modified or an existing financial asset is replaced with a new one due to financial difficulties of the borrower, then an assessment is made to whether the financial asset should be derecognised. If the cash flows of the renegotiated asset is substantially different, then the contractual rights to cash flows from the original financial asset are deemed to have expired. In this case, the original financial asset is derecognised and new financial asset is recognised at fair value. The impairment loss before an expected restructuring is measured as follows:

  • If the expected restructuring will not result in derecognition of the existing asset, then the estimated cash flows arising from the modified financial asset are included in the measurement of the existing asset based on their expected timing and amounts discounted at the original EIR of the existing financial asset.
  • If the expected restructuring will result in derecognition of the existing asset, then the expected fair value of the new asset is treated as the final cash flow from the existing financial asset at the time of its derecognition. This amount is discounted from the expected date of derecognition to the Reporting date using the original EIR of the existing financial asset.

Collateral Valuation

The Bank seeks to use collateral, where possible, to mitigate its risks on financial assets. The collateral comes in various forms such as cash, gold, Government Securities, Letters of Credit/Guarantees, real estate, receivables, inventories, other non-financial assets and credit enhancements such as netting agreements, etc. The fair value of collateral is generally assessed, at a minimum, at inception and based on the Bank’s annual reporting schedule.

Collateral Repossessed

The Bank’s policy is to carry collaterals repossessed at fair value at the repossession date and such assets will be disposed at the earliest possible opportunity. These assets are recorded under assets held for sale as per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – SLFRS 5 on ‘Non-Current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations’.

Write Off

Financial assets (and the related impairment allowances) are normally written off either partially or in full, when there is no realistic prospect of recovery. Where financial assets are secured, this is generally after receipt of any proceeds from the realisation of securities.

Impairment losses are recognised in profit or loss and reflected in a provision account against the relevant category of financial assets. If, in a subsequent year, the amount of the estimated impairment loss increases or decreases because of an event occurring after the impairment was recognised, the previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reduced by adjusting the provision account. If a write-off is later recovered, the recovery is credited to ‘Other Income’.

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Loans and receivables to banks [Refer Note 32]
Loans and receivables to other customers 1,583,326 4,099,738 1,511,158 3,904,948
Charge to the Income Statement – Individual impairment [Refer Note 33.2] 3,439,879 1,386,477 3,439,879 1,386,477
Charge/(write-back) to the Income Statement – Collective impairment [Refer Note 33.2] (1,859,806) 2,710,834 (1,931,932) 2,516,044
Direct write–offs 3,253 2,427 3,211 2,427
Investments in subsidiaries [Refer Note 37.1] 15,350 36,223
Due from subsidiaries 3,306 2,025
Total 1,583,326 4,099,738 1,529,814 3,943,196

19. Personnel Expenses

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Salary and bonus [Refer Note 19.1] 8,261,068 7,740,991 8,161,579 7,675,955
Pension costs [Refer Note 19.1] 1,595,795 1,281,017 1,582,798 1,268,889
Contributions to defined contribution/benefit plans – Funded schemes 1,361,533 1,083,341 1,354,982 1,078,109
Contributions to defined benefit plans – Unfunded schemes [Refer Notes 50.1 (c) and 50.2 (c)] 234,262 197,676 227,816 190,780
Equity-settled share-based payments [Refer Notes 19.2 and 57.5] 206,174 223,330 206,174 223,330
Others [Refer Note 19.3] 850,051 1,015,412 843,756 1,012,363
Total 10,913,088 10,260,750 10,794,307 10,180,537

19.1 Salary, Bonus and Pension Costs

Salary, bonus and contributions to defined contribution/benefit plans, reported above also include amounts paid to and contribution made on behalf of Executive Directors.

19.2 Share Based Payment

The Bank has an equity-settled share based compensation plan, the details of which are given in Note 54 on page 298.

19.3 Others

This includes expenses such as overtime payments, medical and hospitalisation charges, expenses incurred on staff training/recruitment and staff welfare activities, etc.

20. Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation

Depreciation is calculated to write-off the cost of items of Property, Plant & Equipment less their estimated residual values using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives and is recognised in profit or loss. Leased assets under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives. Freehold land is not depreciated.

The estimated useful lives of the Property, Plant & Equipment of the Bank as at December 31, 2016 are as follows:

Class of Asset Depreciation %
Per Annum
Period
(years)
Freehold and leasehold buildings 2.5 40
Motor vehicles 20 5
Computer equipment 20 5
Office equipment 20 5
Office interior work 20 5
Furniture & fittings 10 10
Machinery & equipment 10 10

The above rates are compatible with the rates used by all Group entities.

The depreciation rates are determined separately for each significant part of an item of Property, Plant & Equipment and depreciation commences when it is available for use, i.e., when it is in the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by the management. Depreciation of an asset ceases at the earlier of the date that the asset is classified as held for sale or the date that the asset is derecognised.

All classes of Property, Plant & Equipment together with the reconciliation of carrying amounts and accumulated depreciation at the beginning and at the end of the year are given in Note 39 on pages 265 to 276.

Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reassessed at each Reporting date and adjusted, if required.

Amortisation of Intangible Assets

Intangible assets are amortised using the straight-line method to write down the cost over its estimated useful economic lives, at the rate specified below:

Class of Asset Amortisation %
Per Annum
Period
(years)

Computer software

20 5

The above rate is compatible with the rates used by all Group entities.

The unamortised balances of intangible assets with finite lives are reviewed for impairment whenever there is an indication for impairment and recognised in profit or loss to the extent that they are no longer probable of being recovered from the expected future benefits.

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Depreciation of property, plant & equipment [Refer Note 39] 1,093,088 1,024,162 1,022,648 961,492
Amortisation of intangible assets [Refer Note 40] 173,790 180,558 165,903 179,370
Amortisation of leasehold property [Refer Note 41] 1,452 1,452 942 942
Total 1,268,330 1,206,172 1,189,493 1,141,804

21. Other Operating Expenses

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Directors’ fees [Refer Note 21.1] 38,872 31,947 32,133 26,886
Auditors’ remuneration 31,218 26,787 25,124 21,399
Audit fees and expenses 14,304 14,195 9,766 9,736
Audit related fees and expenses 8,677 6,461 8,392 5,871
Non-audit fees and expenses 8,237 6,131 6,966 5,792
Professional and legal expenses 262,522 290,184 329,237 353,256
Deposit insurance premium paid to the Central Banks 590,544 497,850 590,236 497,850
Donations, including contribution made to the CSR Trust Fund 61,681 62,533 61,681 62,533
Establishment expenses 2,439,490 2,036,083 2,488,984 2,112,577
Maintenance of property, plant & equipment 890,002 731,213 1,035,238 870,500
Office administration expenses 2,495,106 2,277,886 2,269,712 2,038,087
Total 6,809,435 5,954,483 6,832,345 5,983,088

21.1 Directors’ Fees

Directors’ fees represent the fees paid to both Executive and Non-Executive Directors of the Group.

22. Income Tax Expense

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognised in the Income Statement, except to the extent it relates to items recognised directly in Equity or in OCI.

Current Taxation

‘Current tax’ comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. The amount of current tax receivable or payable is the best estimate of the tax amount expected to be paid or received that reflects uncertainty related to income taxes, if any. It is measured using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted, as at the Reporting date. Current tax also includes any tax arising from dividends.

Accordingly, provision for taxation is made on the basis of the accounting profit for the year, as adjusted for taxation purposes, in accordance with the provisions of the Inland Revenue Act No. 10 of 2006 and amendments thereto, at the rates specified in Note 22.1 on page 225. This Note also includes the major components of tax expense, the effective tax rates and a reconciliation between the profit before tax and tax expense, as required by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 12 on ‘Income Taxes’.

Provision for taxation on the overseas operations is made on the basis of the accounting profit for the year, as adjusted for taxation purposes, in accordance with the provisions of the relevant statutes in those countries, using the tax rates enacted or substantively enacted as at the Reporting date.

Deferred Taxation

Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognised for:

  • temporary differences on the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss;
  • temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries to the extent that it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and
  • taxable temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax assets are recognised for unused tax losses, unused tax credits and deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available, against which they can be used. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.

Unrecognised deferred tax assets are reassessed at each Reporting date and recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will be available, against which they can be used.

Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to temporary differences when they reverse, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted as at the Reporting date.

The measurement of deferred tax reflects the tax consequences that would follow the manner in which the Group expects as at the Reporting date to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Additional taxes that arise from the distribution of dividends by the Group, are recognised at the same time as the liability to pay the related dividend is recognised. These amounts are generally recognised in profit or loss as they generally relate to income arising from transactions that were originally recognised in profit or loss.

22.1 Entity wise breakup of Income Tax Expense in the Income Statement is as follows:

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Current Year Tax Expense 5,606,143 5,185,218 5,554,989 5,094,780
Current year income tax expense of Domestic Banking Unit 4,086,795 3,536,032 4,086,795 3,536,032
Current year income tax expense of Off-shore Banking Centre 291,831 277,207 291,831 277,207
Current year income tax expense of Bangladesh Operation 1,167,596 1,185,736 1,167,596 1,185,736
Current year Income tax expense of Commercial Development Company PLC 40,063 37,882
Current year Income tax expense of ONEzero Company Ltd. 13,169 10,914
Current year Income tax expense of Serendib Finance Ltd. (2,258) 41,582
Profit remittance tax of Bangladesh Operation 86,551 86,551
Withholding tax on dividends received 8,947 9,314 8,767 9,254
Prior years
Under/(Over) Provision of taxes in respect of prior years [Refer Note 47] 1,700 1,701
Deferred Tax Expense 42,017 89,933 (16,317) 143,905
Effect of change in tax rates
Origination and reversal of temporary differences [Refer Note 48.1] 42,017 89,933 (16,317) 143,905
Total 5,648,160 5,276,851 5,538,672 5,240,386
Effective tax rate (including deferred tax) (%) 27.62 30.57
Effective tax rate (excluding deferred tax) (%) 27.70 29.73

The income tax for 2016 and 2015 of the Bank and its subsidiaries have been provided on the taxable income at rates shown below:

2016 2015
% %
Domestic operations of the Bank 28.0 28.0
Off-shore banking operation of the Bank 28.0 28.0
Bangladesh operation of the Bank 42.5 42.5
Commercial Development Company PLC 28.0 28.0
ONEzero Company Ltd. 28.0 28.0
Serendib Finance Ltd. 28.0 28.0
Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited 25.0

22.2 Reconciliation of the Accounting Profit to Income Tax Expense

A reconciliation between taxable income and the accounting profit multiplied by the statutory tax rates is given below:

class="hRight"
Tax Rate GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
% % Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Accounting profit before tax from operations 20,114,584 17,136,111 20,051,183 17,143,610
Tax effect at the statutory income tax rate 5,988,705 5,186,846 5,907,894 5,160,768
Domestic operations of the Bank 28 28 4,497,651 3,888,621 4,497,651 3,888,621
Off-shore banking operation of the Bank 28 28 273,192 118,712 273,192 118,712
Bangladesh operation of the Bank 42.5 42.5 1,137,051 1,153,435 1,137,051 1,153,435
Subsidiaries 28 & 25 28 80,811 26,078
Tax effect of exempt income (1,313,810) (1,099,101) (1,313,424) (1,099,080)
Tax effect of non-deductible expenses 6,766,163 6,864,719 6,722,770 6,626,069
Tax effect of deductible expenses (5,841,357) (5,859,214) (5,768,513) (5,684,885)
Qualifying payments (2,505) (3,897) (2,505) (3,897)
Profit remittance tax of Bangladesh operation 86,551 86,551
Under/(Over) provision of taxes in respect of prior years [Refer Notes 22.1 and 47] 1,700 1,701
Withholding tax on dividends received 8,947 9,314 8,767 9,254
Deferred tax expense [Refer Notes 22.1 and 48.1] 42,017 89,933 (16,317) 143,905
Income tax expense reported in the Income Statement at the effective income tax rate 5,648,160 5,276,851 5,538,672 5,240,386

23. Earnings Per Share (EPS)

The Group computes basic and diluted EPS for its ordinary shares. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss that is attributable to ordinary shareholders of the Group by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss that is attributable to ordinary shareholders of the Group by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding, adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potentially ordinary shares, which comprise share options granted to employees.Details of Basic and Diluted EPS are given below:

23.1 Basic Earnings per Ordinary Share

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Amounts used as the numerator:
Profit for the year attributable to equity holders of the Bank (Rs. ’000) 14,510,333 11,855,172 14,512,511 11,903,224
Number of ordinary shares used as the denominator:
Weighted average number of ordinary shares [Refer Note 23.3] 890,037,763 888,693,776 890,037,763 888,693,776
Basic earnings per ordinary share (Rs.) 16.30 13.34 16.31 13.39

23.2 Diluted Earnings per Ordinary Share

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Amounts used as the numerator:
Profit for the year attributable to equity holders of the Bank (Rs. ’000) 14,510,333 11,855,172 14,512,511 11,903,224
Number of ordinary shares used as the denominator:
Weighted average number of ordinary shares [Refer Note 23.3] 892,043,791 890,103,365 892,043,791 890,103,365
Diluted earnings per ordinary share (Rs.) 16.27 13.32 16.27 13.37

23.3 Weighted Average Number of Ordinary Shares for Basic and Diluted Earnings per Share

Outstanding No. of Shares Weighted average No. of Shares
2016 2015 2016 2015
Number of shares in issue as at January 01, 876,866,801 865,857,675 876,866,801 865,857,675
Add: Number of shares satisfied in the form of issue and allotment of new shares from final dividend for 2014 [Refer Note 53.1] 8,838,513 8,838,513
Add: Number of shares satisfied in the form of issue and allotment of new shares from final dividend for 2015 [Refer Note 53.1] 12,731,007 12,731,007 12,731,007
889,597,808 874,696,188 889,597,808 887,427,195
Add: Number of shares issued under Employee Share Option Plan (ESOP) 2008 894,487 2,170,613 268,784 1,266,581
Add: Number of shares issued under Employee Share Option Plan (ESOP) 2015 242,245 171,171
Weighted average number of ordinary shares for basic earnings per ordinary share calculation 890,734,540 876,866,801 890,037,763 888,693,776
Add: Bonus element on number of outstanding options under ESOP 2008 as at the year end 1,404,951 1,409,589
Add: Bonus element on number of outstanding options under ESOP 2015 as at the year end 601,077
Weighted average number of ordinary shares for diluted earnings per ordinary share calculation(*) 890,734,540 876,866,801 892,043,791 890,103,365

(*) The market value of the Bank’s shares for the purpose of calculating the dilutive effect of share options has been based on the excess of quoted market price as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 over the offer price.

24. Dividends

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 Second Interim Rs. 1.00 Per share for 2014 (Paid on February 05, 2015) 2016 2015 Second Interim Rs. 1.00 Per share for 2014 (Paid on February 05, 2015)
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
On Ordinary Shares
Net dividend paid to the ordinary shareholders out of normal profits 783,258 783,258
Withholding tax deducted at source 82,685 82,685
Gross ordinary dividend paid 865,943 865,943
First Interim Rs. 1.50 Per share for 2016 (Paid on November 18, 2016) First Interim Rs. 1.50 Per share for 2015 (Paid on December 18, 2015) First Interim Rs. 1.50 Per share for 2016 (Paid on November 18, 2016) First Interim Rs. 1.50 Per share for 2015 (Paid on December 18, 2015)
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
On Ordinary Shares
Net dividend paid to the ordinary shareholders out of normal profits 1,208,039 1,189,367 1,208,039 1,189,367
Withholding tax deducted at source 127,889 125,884 127,889 125,884
Gross ordinary dividend paid 1,335,928 1,315,251 1,335,928 1,315,251
Total gross ordinary dividend paid 1,335,928 2,181,194 1,335,928 2,181,194

The Board of Directors of the Bank has approved the payment of a second interim dividend of Rs.3.00 per share for both the voting and non-voting ordinary shareholders of the Bank for the year ended December 31, 2016 and this dividend was paid on February 17, 2017.

The Board of Directors of the Bank has recommended the payment of a final dividend of Rs.2.00 per share which is to be satisfied in the form of issue and allotment of new shares for both voting and non-voting ordinary shares of the Bank for the year ended December 31, 2016 (Bank declared a final dividend of Rs. 5.00 per share for 2015 in 2016 and this was satisfied by way of Rs. 3.00 per share in the form of cash and Rs. 2.00 per share in the form of shares). The total dividend recommended by the Board is to be approved at the forthcoming Annual General Meeting to be held on March 30, 2017. In accordance with provisions of the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard No.10 on ‘Events after the Reporting Period’, the second interim dividend referred to above and the proposed final dividend for the year ended December 31, 2016 has not been recognised as a liability as at the year end. Final dividend payable for the year 2016 has been estimated at Rs.1,783.199 Mn. (Actual final dividend for 2015 amounted to Rs. 4,384.985 Mn.)

Accordingly, the dividend per ordinary share ( for both voting and non-voting ) for the year 2016 would be Rs. 6.50 (2015 – Rs. 6.50).

25. Classification of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities

The tables below provide a reconciliation between line items in the Statement of Financial Position and categories of financial assets and financial liabilities of the Group and the Bank.

25.1 Classification of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities – Group

25.1 (a) Group

As at December 31, 2016 Held-for-Trading (HFT) Held-to-Maturity (HTM) Loans and Receivables Available- for-Sale (AFS) Other Amortised Cost Total
Note Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 27 32,924,227 32,924,227
Balances with Central Banks 28 43,935,258 43,935,258
Placements with banks 29 11,718,499 11,718,499
Securities purchased under resale agreements
Derivative financial assets 30 1,052,829 1,052,829
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 31 4,987,798 4,987,798
Loans and receivables to banks 32 624,458 624,458
Loans and receivables to other customers 33 620,129,488 620,129,488
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 34 160,092,522 160,092,522
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 35 63,626,598 63,626,598
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 36 51,824,026 51,824,026
Total Financial Assets 6,040,627 63,626,598 761,155,956 160,092,522 990,915,703
 
Financial Liabilities
Due to banks 43 71,098,391 71,098,391
Derivative financial liabilities 44 1,515,035 1,515,035
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 69,628,961 69,628,961
Due to other customers/ deposits from customers 45 743,310,613 743,310,613
Other borrowings 46 9,270,154 9,270,154
Subordinated liabilities 52 24,849,539 24,849,539
Total Financial Liabilities 1,515,035 918,157,658 919,672,693

25.1 (b) Group

As at December 31, 2015 Held-for-trading (HFT) Held-to-maturity (HTM) Loans and Receivables Available- for-Sale (AFS) Other Amortised Cost Total
Note Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 27 20,107,076 20,107,076
Balances with Central Banks 28 28,221,017 28,221,017
Placements with banks 29 17,193,539 17,193,539
Securities purchased under resale agreements 8,002,100 8,002,100
Derivative financial assets 30 4,118,169 4,118,169
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 31 7,656,349 7,656,349
Loans and receivables to Banks 32 601,106 601,106
Loans and receivables to other customers 33 509,923,128 509,923,128
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 34 204,261,934 204,261,934
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 36 57,724,369 57,724,369
Total Financial Assets 11,774,518 641,772,335 204,261,934 857,808,787
 
Financial Liabilities
Due to banks 43 31,789,396 31,789,396
Derivative financial liabilities 44 1,890,770 1,890,770
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 112,249,703 112,249,703
Due to other customers/ deposits from customers 45 624,021,217 624,021,217
Other borrowings 46 9,985,637 9,985,637
Subordinated liabilities 52 11,988,272 11,988,272
Total Financial Liabilities 1,890,770 790,034,225 791,924,995

25.2 Classification of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities – Bank

The tables below provide a reconciliation between line items in the Statement of Financial Position and categories of financial assets and financial liabilities of the Bank.

25.2 (a) Bank

As at December 31, 2016 Held-for-Trading (HFT) Held-to-Maturity (HTM) Loans and Receivables Available- for-Sale (AFS) Other Amortised Cost Total
Note Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 27 30,193,589 30,193,589
Balances with Central Banks 28 43,873,205 43,873,205
Placements with banks 29 11,718,499 11,718,499
Securities purchased under resale agreements
Derivative financial assets 30 1,052,829 1,052,829
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 31 4,987,798 4,987,798
Loans and receivables to banks 32 624,458 624,458
Loans and receivables to other customers 33 616,018,228 616,018,228
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 34 160,023,471 160,023,471
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 35 60,981,298 60,981,298
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 36 51,824,026 51,824,026
Total Financial Assets 6,040,627 60,981,298 754,252,005 160,023,471 981,297,401
Financial Liabilities
Due to banks 43 67,608,811 67,608,811
Derivative financial liabilities 44 1,515,035 1,515,035
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 69,867,469 69,867,469
Due to other customers/ deposits from customers 45 739,563,494 739,563,494
Other borrowings 46 9,270,154 9,270,154
Subordinated liabilities 52 24,849,539 24,849,539
Total Financial Liabilities 1,515,035 –– 911,159,467 912,674,502

25.2 (b) Bank

As at December 31, 2015 Held-for-Trading (HFT) Held-to-Maturity (HTM) Loans and Receivables Available- for-Sale (AFS) Other Amortised Cost Total
Note Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 27 20,043,512 20,043,512
Balances with Central Banks 28 28,221,017 28,221,017
Placements with banks 29 17,193,539 17,193,539
Securities purchased under resale agreements 8,002,100 8,002,100
Derivative financial assets 30 4,118,169 4,118,169
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 31 7,656,349 7,656,349
Loans and receivables to banks 32 601,106 601,106
Loans and receivables to other customers 33 508,115,127 508,115,127
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 34 204,244,289 204,244,289
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 36 57,724,369 57,724,369
Total Financial Assets 11,774,518 639,900,770 204,244,289 855,919,577
 
Financial Liabilities
Due to banks 43 30,319,119 30,319,119
Derivative financial liabilities 44 1,890,770 1,890,770
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 112,384,812 112,384,812
Due to other customers/ deposits from customers 45 624,101,810 624,101,810
Other borrowings 46 9,985,637 9,985,637
Subordinated liabilities 52 11,973,272 11,973,272
Total Financial Liabilities 1,890,770 788,764,650 790,655,420

26. Fair Value Measurement

The Group measures the fair value using the following fair value hierarchy, which reflects the significance of the inputs used in making the measurement. An analysis of fair value measurement of financial and non-financial assets and liabilities is provided below.

Level 1

Inputs that are quoted market prices (unadjusted) in an active market for identical instruments.

When available, the Group measures the fair value of an instrument using active quoted prices or dealer price quotations (assets and long positions are measured at a bid price; liabilities and short positions are measured at an ask price), without any deduction for transaction costs. A market is regarded as active if transactions for asset or liability take place with sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.

Level 2

Inputs other than quoted prices included within level that are observable either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).

This category includes instruments valued using;

  1. (a) quoted prices in active markets for similar instruments,
  2. (b) quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are considered to be less active, or
  3. (c) other valuation techniques in which almost all significant inputs are directly or indirectly observable from market data.

Level 3

Inputs that are unobservable.

This category includes all instruments for which the valuation technique includes inputs not based on observable data and the unobservable inputs have a significant effect on the instrument’s valuation.

This category includes instruments that are valued based on quoted prices of similar instruments for which significant unobservable adjustments or assumptions are required to reflect difference between the instruments.

Valuation techniques include net present value and discounted cash flow models, comparison with similar instruments for which observable market prices exist. Assumptions and inputs used in valuation techniques include risk-free and benchmark interest rates, risk premiums in estimating discount rates, bond and equity prices, foreign exchange rates, expected price volatilities and corrections.

Observable prices or model inputs such as market interest rates are usually available in the market for listed equity securities and Government Securities such as Treasury Bills and Treasury Bonds. Availability of observable prices and model inputs reduces the need for management judgment and estimation while reducing uncertainty associated in determining the fair values.

Models are adjusted to reflect the spread for bid and ask prices to reflect costs to close out positions, credit and debit valuation adjustments, liquidity spread and limitations in the models. Also, profit or loss calculated when such financial instruments are first recorded (‘Day 1’ profit or loss) is deferred and recognised only when the inputs become observable or on derecognition of the instrument.

26.1 Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value and Fair Value Hierarchy

The following table provides an analysis of assets and liabilities measured at fair value as at the Reporting date, by the level in the fair value hierarchy into which the fair value measurement is categorised. These amounts were based on the values recognised in the Statement of Financial Position.

GROUP BANK
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
As at December 31, 2016 Note Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Non-Financial Assets
Property, plant & equipment
Land and buildings 26.2 7,743,071 7,743,071 7,528,891 7,528,891
Total non-financial assets at fair value 7,743,071 7,743,071 7,528,891 7,528,891
Financial Assets
Derivative financial assets 30
Currency swaps 261,664 261,664 261,664 261,664
Forward contracts 788,808 788,808 788,808 788,808
Spot contracts 2,357 2,357 2,357 2,357
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 31
Government securities 4,693,989 4,693,989 4,693,989 4,693,989
Equity shares 293,809 293,809 293,809 293,809
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 34
Government securities 159,642,243 159,642,243 159,573,316 159,573,316
Equity securities 246,548 47,271 293,819 246,548 47,147 293,695
Investment in unit trust 156,460 156,460 156,460 156,460
Total financial assets at fair value 164,876,589 1,209,289 47,271 166,133,149 164,807,662 1,209,289 47,147 166,064,098
Total assets at fair value 164,876,589 1,209,289 7,790,342 173,876,220 164,807,662 1,209,289 7,576,038 173,592,989
Financial Liabilities
Derivative financial liabilities 44
Currency swaps 663,714 663,714 663,714 663,714
Forward contracts 849,011 849,011 849,011 849,011
Spot contracts 2,310 2,310 2,310 2,310
Total liabilities at fair value 1,515,035 1,515,035 1,515,035 1,515,035
GROUP BANK
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
As at December 31, 2015 Note Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Non-Financial Assets
Property, plant & equipment
Land and buildings 26.2 7,469,355 7,469,355 7,242,924 7,242,924
Total non-financial assets at fair value 7,469,355 7,469,355 7,242,924 7,242,924
Financial Assets
Derivative financial assets 30
Currency swaps 3,328,679 3,328,679 3,328,679 3,328,679
Forward contracts 786,794 786,794 786,794 786,794
Spot contracts 2,696 2,696 2,696 2,696
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 31
Government securities 7,330,086 7,330,086 7,330,086 7,330,086
Equity shares 326,263 326,263 326,263 326,263
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 34
Government securities 203,774,930 203,774,930 203,757,409 203,757,409
Equity securities 234,839 46,611 281,450 234,839 46,487 281,326
Investment in unit trust 205,554 205,554 205,554 205,554
Total financial assets at fair value 211,666,118 4,323,723 46,611 216,036,452 211,648,597 4,323,723 46,487 216,018,807
Total assets at fair value 211,666,118 4,323,723 7,515,966 223,505,807 211,648,597 4,323,723 7,289,411 223,261,731
Financial Liabilities
Derivative financial liabilities 44
Currency swaps 791,199 791,199 791,199 791,199
Forward contracts 1,098,002 1,098,002 1,098,002 1,098,002
Spot contracts 1,569 1,569 1,569 1,569
Total liabilities at fair value 1,890,770 1,890,770 1,890,770 1,890,770

26.2 Level 3 Fair Value Measurement

Property, Plant & Equipment (PPE)

Reconciliation from the opening balance to the ending balance for the land and buildings in the Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy is available in Note 39.1 to 39.4 on pages 266 to 269.

Reconciliation of Revaluation Reserve pertaining to land and buildings categorised as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy is given in the Statement of Changes in Equity on pages 186 to 189.

Note 39.5 (b) on page 271 provides information on significant unobservable inputs used as at December 31, 2016 in measuring fair value of land and buildings categorised as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.

Note 39.5 (c) on page 275 provides details of valuation techniques used and sensitivity of fair value measurement to changes in significant unobservable inputs.

Equity Securities

Value of unquoted shares of Rs. 47.271 Mn. in Group and Rs. 47.147 Mn. in Bank as at end of the year 2016 (Rs. 46.611 Mn. in Group and Rs. 46.487 Mn. in Bank as at end 2015) categorised under Financial investments – Available-for-sale whose fair value cannot be reliably measured is stated at cost in the Statement of Financial Position as permitted by the LKAS 39 on ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’.

26.3 Financial Instruments not Measured at Fair Value and Fair Value Hierarchy

Methodologies and assumptions used to determine fair value of financial instruments which are not already recorded at fair value in the Statement of Financial Position are as follows:

Fixed Rate Financial Instruments

The fair value of fixed rate financial assets and liabilities carried at amortised cost (eg. fixed rate loans and receivables, due to other customers, subordinated liabilities) are estimated based on the Discounted Cash Flow approach. This approach employs the current market interest rates of similar financial instruments as a significant unobservable input in measuring the fair value and hence it is categorised under Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.

Sensitivity of Significant Unobservable Inputs used to Measure Fair Value of Fixed Rate Financial Instruments

A significant increase/(decrease) in the market interest rate would result in lower/(higher) fair value being disclosed.

Assets for which Fair Value Approximates Carrying Value

For financial assets and liabilities with short-term maturities or with short-term re-pricing intervals, it is assumed that the carrying amounts approximate to their fair value. This assumption is also applied to demand deposits and savings deposits which do not have a specific maturity.

The following table sets out the estimated fair values of financial assets and liabilities not measured at fair value and hence reflected at the carrying amounts in Financial Statements and the fair value hierarchy used:

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Fair Value Total Carrying Amount Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Fair Value Total Carrying Amount
Note Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cash and cash equivalents 27 32,924,227 32,924,227 32,924,227 30,193,589 30,193,589 30,193,589
Balance with Central Banks 28 43,935,258 43,935,258 43,935,258 43,873,205 43,873,205 43,873,205
Placements with banks 29 11,718,499 11,718,499 11,718,499 11,718,499 11,718,499 11,718,499
Loans and receivables to banks 32 624,458 624,458 624,458 624,458 624,458 624,458
Loans and receivables to other customers 33 625,821,184 625,821,184 620,129,488 621,709,924 621,709,924 616,018,228
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 35 62,777,800 62,777,800 63,626,598 60,132,500 60,132,500 60,981,298
Financial investments – Loans and recievables 36 51,824,026 51,824,026 51,824,026 51,824,026 51,824,026 51,824,026
Total financial assets not at fair value 62,777,800 89,202,442 677,645,210 829,625,452 824,782,554 60,132,500 86,409,751 673,533,950 820,076,201 815,233,303
Financial Liabilities
Due to banks 43 71,098,391 71,098,391 71,098,391 67,608,811 67,608,811 67,608,811
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 69,628,961 69,628,961 69,628,961 69,867,469 69,867,469 69,867,469
Due to other customers/ deposits from customers 45 743,145,668 743,145,668 743,310,613 739,728,439 739,728,439 739,563,494
Other borrowings 46 9,270,154 9,270,154 9,270,154 9,270,154 9,270,154 9,270,154
Subordinated liabilities 52 24,175,367 24,175,367 24,849,539 24,175,367 24,175,367 24,849,539
Total financial liabilities not at fair value 140,727,352 776,591,189 917,318,541 918,157,658 137,476,280 773,173,960 910,650,240 911,159,467
GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2015 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Fair Value Total Carrying Amount Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Fair Value Total Carrying Amount
Note Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 27 20,107,076 20,107,076 20,107,076 20,043,512 20,043,512 20,043,512
Balances with Central Banks 28 28,221,017 28,221,017 28,221,017 28,221,017 28,221,017 28,221,017
Placements with banks 29 17,193,539 17,193,539 17,193,539 17,193,539 17,193,539 17,193,539
Securities purchased under resale agreements 8,002,100 8,002,100 8,002,100 8,002,100 8,002,100 8,002,100
Loans and receivables to banks 32 601,106 601,106 601,106 601,106 601,106 601,106
Loans and receivables to other customers 33 511,056,767 511,056,767 509,923,128 509,248,766 509,248,766 508,115,127
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 36 57,724,369 57,724,369 57,724,369 57,724,369 57,724,369 57,724,369
Total financial assets not at fair value 74,124,838 568,781,136 642,905,974 641,772,335 74,061,274 566,973,135 641,034,409 639,900,770
Financial Liabilities
Due to banks 43 31,789,396 31,789,396 31,789,396 30,319,119 30,319,119 30,319,119
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 112,249,703 112,249,703 112,249,703 112,384,812 112,384,812 112,384,812
Due to other customers/deposits from customers 45 624,570,898 624,570,898 624,021,217 624,651,491 624,651,491 624,101,810
Other borrowings 46 9,985,637 9,985,637 9,985,637 9,985,637 9,985,637 9,985,637
Subordinated liabilities 52 12,019,342 12,019,342 11,988,272 12,004,342 12,004,342 11,973,272
Total financial liabilities not at fair value 144,039,099 646,575,877 790,614,976 790,034,225 142,703,931 646,641,470 789,345,401 788,764,650

26.4 Valuation Techniques and Inputs in Measuring Fair Values

The table below provides information on the valuation techniques and inputs used in measuring the fair values of Derivative financial assets and liabilities in the Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, as given in Note 26.1 on page 234.

Type of Financial Instruments Fair Value as at December 31, 2016 (Rs. ’000) Valuation Technique Significant Valuation inputs
Derivative Financial Assets 1,052,829 Adjusted Forward Rate Approach
This approach considers the present value of projected forward exchange rate as at the Reporting date as the fair value. The said forward rate is projected, based on the spot exchange rate and the forward premium/discount calculated using extrapolated interest rates of the currency pairs under consideration. In computing the present value, interest rate differential between two currencies under consideration is used as the discount rate.
  • Spot exchange rate
Derivative Financial Liabilities 1,515,035
  • Interest rate differentials between currencies under consideration

27. Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, placements with banks and loans at call/short notice and highly liquid financial assets with original maturities within three months or less from the date of acquisition that are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in fair value and are used by the Group in the management of its short-term commitments. These items are brought to Financial Statements at face values or the gross values, where appropriate. There were no cash and cash equivalents held by the Group companies that were not available for use by the Group.

Cash and cash equivalents are carried at amortised cost in the Statement of Financial Position.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cash in hand 17,599,901 15,931,941 17,406,776 15,873,479
Coins and notes held in local currency 15,497,697 14,035,800 15,488,867 14,031,376
Coins and notes held in foreign currency 2,102,204 1,896,141 1,917,909 1,842,103
Balances with banks 6,122,355 2,705,999 5,794,927 2,700,897
Local banks 5,102
Foreign banks 6,122,355 2,700,897 5,794,927 2,700,897
Money at call and at short notice 9,201,971 1,469,136 6,991,886 1,469,136
Total 32,924,227 20,107,076 30,193,589 20,043,512

The maturity analysis of Cash and Cash Equivalents is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

28. Balances with Central Banks

Balances with Central Banks are carried at amortised cost in the Statement of Financial Position.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Statutory balances with Central Banks [Refer Note 28.1] 43,935,258 22,820,127 43,873,205 22,820,127
Non-statutory balances with Central Banks [Refer Note 28.2] 5,400,890 5,400,890
Total 43,935,258 28,221,017 43,873,205 28,221,017

28.1 Statutory Balances with Central Banks

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balances with the Central Bank of Sri Lanka 40,469,986 20,075,130 40,469,986 20,075,130
Balances with the Bangladesh Bank 3,403,219 2,744,997 3,403,219 2,744,997
Balances with the Maldives Monetary Authority 62,053
Total 43,935,258 22,820,127 43,873,205 22,820,127

Balances with Central Bank of Sri Lanka

The Monetary Law Act requires that all commercial banks operating in Sri Lanka to maintain a statutory reserve on all deposit liabilities denominated in Sri Lankan Rupees. As required by the provisions of Section 93 of the Monetary Law Act, a cash balance is maintained with the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. As at December 31, 2016, the minimum cash reserve requirement was 7.50% of the rupee deposit liabilities (7.50% in 2015). There is no reserve requirement for foreign currency deposits liabilities of the Domestic Banking Unit (DBU) and the deposit liabilities of the Off-shore Banking Centre (OBC) in Sri Lanka.

Balances with Bangladesh Bank

The Bank’s Bangladesh operation is required to maintain the statutory liquidity requirement on time and demand liabilities (both local and foreign currencies), partly in the form of a Cash Reserve Requirement and the balance by way of foreign currency and/or in the form of unencumbered securities held with the Bangladesh Bank. As per the Bangladesh Bank regulations, the Statutory Liquidity Requirement as at December 31, 2016 was 19.50% (19.50% in 2015) on time and demand liabilities (both local and foreign currencies), which includes a 6.50% ( 6.50% in 2015) cash reserve requirement and the balance 13.00% (13.00% in 2015) is permitted to be maintained in foreign currency and/or also in unencumbered securities held with the Bangladesh Bank.

Balances with Maldives Monetary Authority

The Maldives Banking Act No. 24 of 2010 section 25 requires the Bank to maintain a statutory reserve on all deposits liabilities denominated in both foreign currency and local currency deposits excluding interbank deposits of other banks in Maldives and Letter of Credit margin deposits. According to the Bank regulations of Maldives Monetary Authority, the Minimum Reserve Requirement (MRR) as at December 31, 2016 was 10%.The reserve requirement for local currency is to be met in the form of Rufiyaa deposits, while reserve requirement for foreign currency is to be met in the form of US dollar deposits.

28.2 Non-Statutory Balances with Central Banks

As per the circulars 35/01/005/006/33 and 34/01/005/006/07, issued by the Domestic Operations Department of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka, the ‘Standing Repurchase (Repo)’ facility was replaced by the ‘Standing Deposit Facility (SDF)’ for open market operations. This facility is available on an overnight basis and interest component on the deposit has been computed at the Standing Deposit Facility Rate (SDFR) of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka for the duration of the respective deposit held.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Central Bank of Sri Lanka (*) 5,400,890 5,400,890
Bangladesh Bank
Total 5,400,890 5,400,890

(*) The Group had the above balance on a Standing Deposit Facility as at December 31, 2015.

The maturity analysis of Balances with Central Banks is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

29. Placements with Banks

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Placements – within Sri Lanka 1,094,821 5,516,273 1,094,821 5,516,273
Placements – outside Sri Lanka 10,623,678 11,677,266 10,623,678 11,677,266
Total 11,718,499 17,193,539 11,718,499 17,193,539

The maturity analysis of Placements with Banks is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

30. Derivative Financial Assets

The Bank uses derivatives such as interest rate swaps, foreign currency swaps and forward foreign exchange contracts, etc. Derivative financial assets are recorded at fair value. Changes in the fair value of derivatives are included in ‘Net Gains/(Losses) from Trading’ in the Income Statement.

Derivatives embedded in other financial instruments are treated as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contract and the host contract is not itself held-for-trading or designated at fair value through profit or loss. The embedded derivatives separated from the host are carried at fair value in the trading portfolio with changes in fair value recognised in the profit or loss.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Foreign currency derivatives
Currency swaps 261,664 3,328,679 261,664 3,328,679
Forward contracts 788,808 786,794 788,808 786,794
Spot contracts 2,357 2,696 2,357 2,696
Total 1,052,829 4,118,169 1,052,829 4,118,169

The maturity analysis of Derivative Financial Assets is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

31. Other Financial Instruments – Held-for-Trading

Financial assets are classified as Held-for-trading if;

  • they are acquired principally for the purpose of selling or repurchasing in the near term; or
  • they hold as a part of a portfolio that is managed together for short-term profit or position taking; or
  • they form part of derivative financial instruments entered into by the Group that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 39 on ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’.

Financial assets Held-for-trading are recorded in the Statement of Financial Position at fair value. Changes in fair value are recognised in profit or loss. Interest and dividend income are recorded in ‘Interest Income’ and ‘Net Gains/(Losses) from Trading’ respectively in the Income Statement, according to the terms of the contract, or when the right to receive the payment has been established.

The Group evaluates its financial assets Held-for-trading, other than derivatives, to determine whether the intention to sell them in the near term is still appropriate. When the Group is unable to trade these financial assets, due to inactive markets and Management’s intention to sell them in the foreseeable future significantly changes, the Group may elect to reclassify these financial assets in rare circumstances.

Financial assets held-for-trading include instruments such as Government and other debt securities and equity instruments that have been acquired principally for the purpose of selling or repurchasing in the near term and derivatives, including separated embedded derivatives explained below, unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Government securities [Refer Note 31.1] 4,693,989 7,330,086 4,693,989 7,330,086
Equity securities [Refer Note 31.2] 293,809 326,263 293,809 326,263
Total 4,987,798 7,656,349 4,987,798 7,656,349

31.1 Government Securities

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Treasury bills 2,467,221 1,552,531 2,467,221 1,552,531
Treasury bonds 2,226,768 5,777,555 2,226,768 5,777,555
Total Government securities 4,693,989 7,330,086 4,693,989 7,330,086

The maturity analysis of Other Financial Instruments Held-for-trading is given in Note 62 on pages .

31.2 Equity Securities – Group and Bank

As at December 31, 2016 As at December 31, 2015
Sector/Name of the Company No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of the Investment No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of the Investment
Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Bank, Finance and Insurance
Central Finance Company PLC 196,189 100.00 19,619 18,937 94,930 253.00 24,017 18,937
Citizens Development Business Finance PLC (Non-voting) 101,965 62.10 6,332 3,398 101,965 80.00 8,157 3,398
Hatton National Bank PLC 83 225.00 19 12 82 210.60 17 12
Lanka Ventures PLC 100,000 42.50 4,250 3,033 100,000 43.50 4,350 3,033
National Development Bank PLC 200,000 156.00 31,200 34,381
People’s Insurance Ltd. 126,500 19.00 2,404 1,898
Sampath Bank PLC 26,350 260.40 6,862 4,298 25,655 248.00 6,362 4,298
Subtotal 70,686 65,957 42,903 29,678
 
Beverage, Food and Tobacco
Lanka Milk Foods (CWE) PLC 250,000 119.00 29,750 27,866 250,000 135.00 33,750 27,866
Melstacorp Ltd. 245,960 59.30 14,585 9,814
Renuka Foods PLC (Non-voting) 1,000 19.50 20 15
COCO Lanka PLC (Non-voting) 1,000 23.90 24 15
Distilleries Company of Sri Lanka PLC 181,490 246.00 44,647 28,968
Subtotal 44,355 37,695 78,421 56,849
 
Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals
Chemical Industries Colombo Holding PLC (Non-voting) 161,400 68.00 10,975 11,692 161,400 81.20 13,106 11,692
Haycarb PLC 107,100 150.00 16,065 15,914 107,100 164.90 17,661 15,914
Subtotal 27,040 27,606 30,767 27,606
 
Construction and Engineering
Colombo Dockyard PLC 75,000 78.60 5,895 16,685 75,000 150.10 11,258 16,685
Subtotal 5,895 16,685 11,258 16,685
 
Diversified Holdings
Hemas Holdings PLC 60 98.00 6 2 60 92.90 6 2
John Keells Holdings PLC 130,611 145.00 18,939 20,527 114,285 178.10 20,354 20,527
Subtotal 18,945 20,529 20,360 20,529
 
Healthcare
Ceylon Hospitals PLC 121,900 87.40 10,654 12,868 121,900 101.20 12,336 12,868
Ceylon Hospitals PLC (Non-voting) 61,100 69.50 4,246 4,423 61,100 75.00 4,583 4,423
Subtotal 14,900 17,291 16,919 17,291
 
Hotels and Travels
John Keells Hotels PLC 267,608 10.90 2,917 3,473 267,608 15.40 4,121 3,473
Taj Lanka Hotels PLC 212,390 25.20 5,352 6,625 212,390 25.30 5,373 6,625
Subtotal 8,269 10,098 9,494 10,098
As at December 31, 2016 As at December 31, 2015
Sector/Name of the Company No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of the Investment No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of the Investment
Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Investment Trusts
Renuka Holdings PLC 117,158 21.10 2,472 3,180 117,158 26.90 3,152 3,180
Renuka Holdings PLC (Non-voting) 265,368 18.00 4,777 4,958 265,368 22.80 6,050 4,958
Subtotal 7,249 8,138 9,202 8,138
 
Land and Property
Overseas Reality Ceylon PLC 183,320 20.00 3,666 2,716 183,320 23.20 4,253 2,716
CT Land Development PLC 15,000 53.10 797 531 15,000 50.00 750 531
Subtotal 4,463 3,247 5,003 3,247
 
Manufacturing
ACL Cables PLC 343,032 60.50 20,753 14,096 171,516 120.90 20,736 14,096
Dipped Products PLC 200,000 86.80 17,360 24,239 200,000 110.00 22,000 24,239
Lanka Walltile PLC 60 99.70 6 5 60 109.80 7 5
Pelwatte Sugar Industries PLC 12,300 0.10 1 351 12,300 0.10 1 351
Royal Ceramics Lanka PLC 155,927 115.50 18,010 18,057 155,927 111.20 17,339 18,057
Subtotal 56,130 56,748 60,083 56,748
 
Plantations
Kotagala Plantations PLC 201,750 8.90 1,796 9,172 201,750 17.80 3,591 9,172
Subtotal 1,796 9,172 3,591 9,172
 
Power and Energy
Hemas Power PLC 106,249 22.30 2,369 2,053 106,249 25.00 2,656 2,053
Lanka IOC PLC 685,984 31.70 21,746 15,013 685,984 37.10 25,450 15,013
Subtotal 24,115 17,066 28,106 17,066
 
Telecommunications
Dialog Axiata PLC 949,172 10.50 9,966 6,300 949,172 10.70 10,156 6,300
Subtotal 9,966 6,300 10,156 6,300
Total 293,809 296,532 326,263 279,407
Mark to market gains/(losses) (2,723) 46,856
Market value of equity securities 293,809 326,263

31.3 Industry/Sector Composition of Equity Securities – Group and Bank

As at December 31, 2016 As at December 31, 2015
Industry/Sector Market Value Cost of the Investment Market Value Cost of the Investment
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 % Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 %
Banking, Finance and Insurance 70,686 65,957 24.06 42,903 29,678 13.15
Beverage, Food and Tobacco 44,355 37,695 15.10 78,421 56,849 24.04
Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals 27,040 27,606 9.20 30,767 27,606 9.43
Construction and Engineering 5,895 16,685 2.01 11,258 16,685 3.45
Diversified Holdings 18,945 20,529 6.45 20,360 20,529 6.24
Healthcare 14,900 17,291 5.07 16,919 17,291 5.19
Hotels and Travels 8,269 10,098 2.81 9,494 10,098 2.91
Investment Trusts 7,249 8,138 2.47 9,202 8,138 2.82
Land and Property 4,463 3,247 1.52 5,003 3,247 1.53
Manufacturing 56,130 56,748 19.10 60,083 56,748 18.42
Plantations 1,796 9,172 0.61 3,591 9,172 1.10
Power and Energy 24,115 17,066 8.21 28,106 17,066 8.61
Telecommunications 9,966 6,300 3.39 10,156 6,300 3.11
Subtotal 293,809 296,532 100.00 326,263 279,407 100.00
Mark to market gains/(losses) (2,723) 46,856
Market value of equity securities 293,809 293,809 100.00 326,263 326,263 100.00

32. Loans and Receivables to Banks

‘Loans and receivables to banks’ comprises of non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market, other than:

  • those that the Group intends to sell immediately or in the near term and those that the Group, upon initial recognition, designates as at fair value through profit or loss.
  • those that the Group, upon initial recognition, designates as available-for-sale.
  • those that the Group, upon initial recognition, designates as held-to-maturity.
  • those for which the Group may not recover substantially all of its initial investment, other than because of credit deterioration.
  • finance lease receivables

‘Loans and receivables to banks’ include amounts due from banks. After initial measurement, Loans and receivables to banks are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR, less provision for impairment, except when the Group designates loans and receivables at fair value through profit or loss. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees and costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The amortisation is included in ‘Interest Income’ while the losses arising from impairment are recognised in ‘Impairment charges for loans and other losses’ in the Income Statement.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Gross loans and receivables 624,458 601,106 624,458 601,106
Less: Provision for impairment
Net loans and receivables 624,458 601,106 624,458 601,106

The maturity analysis of Loans and Receivables to Banks is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

The Bank did not make any payments to counter party banks for the oil hedging transactions with effect from June 02, 2009 in response to a Directive received from the Exchange Controller of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Consequently, one of the counterparty banks appropriated US$ 4.170 Mn. (Rs. 624.458 Mn.) which has been kept as a deposit with them. This action has been contested by the Bank. In view of the stance taken by the Bank in this regard, both the deposit (made by the Bank) and the amount due to the said counterparty bank, have been recorded in the Statement of Financial Position.

32. 1 (a) By Currency

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
United States Dollar 624,458 601,106 624,458 601,106
Subtotal 624,458 601,106 624,458 601,106

33. Loans and Receivables to Other Customers

‘Loans and receivables to other customers’ comprises of non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market, other than:

  • those that the Group intends to sell immediately or in the near term and those that the Group, upon initial recognition, designates as at fair value through profit or loss
  • those that the Group, upon initial recognition, designates as available-for-sale
  • those that the Group, upon initial recognition, designates as held-to-maturity.
  • those for which the Group may not recover substantially all of its initial investment, other than because of credit deterioration.

‘Loans and receivables to other customers’ include, Loans & Advances and Lease Receivables of the Group.

When the Group is the lessor in a lease agreement that transfers substantially all risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the asset to the lessee, the arrangement is classified as a finance lease. Amounts receivable under finance leases, net of initial rentals received, unearned lease income and provision for impairment, are classified as lease receivable and are presented within ‘Loans and receivables to customers’ in the Statement of Financial Position.

After initial measurement, ‘Loans and receivables to other customers’ are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR, less provision for impairment, except when the Group designates loans and receivables at fair value through profit or loss. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees and costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The amortisation is included in ‘Interest Income’, while the losses arising from impairment are recognised in ‘Impairment charges for loans and other losses’ in the Income Statement.

The Bank may enter into certain lending commitments where the loan, on drawdown, is expected to be classified as Held-for-trading because the intent is to sell the loans in the short term. These commitments to lend, if any, are recorded as derivatives and measured at fair value through profit or loss. Where the loan, on drawdown, is expected to be retained by the Bank and not sold in the short term, the commitment is recorded only when it is an onerous contract that is likely to give rise to a loss.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Gross loans and receivables 637,982,536 528,382,921 633,390,907 526,166,681
Less: Provision for individual impairment [Refer Note 33.2] 8,453,457 5,369,960 8,453,457 5,369,960
Provision for collective impairment [Refer Note 33.2] 9,399,591 13,089,833 8,919,222 12,681,594
Net loans and receivables 620,129,488 509,923,128 616,018,228 508,115,127

The maturity analysis of Loans and Receivables to Other Customers is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

33.1 Analysis

33.1 (a) By Product

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Loans and receivables
Overdrafts 100,985,232 81,493,071 100,903,024 81,966,028
Trade finance 43,088,097 45,805,983 43,088,097 45,805,983
Lease/hire purchase receivable [Refer Note 33.3] 39,040,966 37,292,636 35,993,964 34,472,653
Credit cards 6,679,059 4,830,429 6,679,059 4,830,429
Pawning 1,239,785 1,870,881 1,239,785 1,870,881
Staff loans 7,276,285 6,117,701 7,274,154 6,115,662
Housing loans 47,275,462 40,327,887 47,275,462 40,327,887
Personal loans 25,996,196 26,290,382 25,906,055 26,270,744
Term loans
Short-term 72,590,084 44,044,255 71,219,300 44,044,255
Long-term 277,354,045 224,519,934 277,354,682 224,672,397
Loans granted from Investment Fund Account (IFA) [Refer Note 33.4] 3,974,359 4,435,479 3,974,359 4,435,479
Bills of exchange 12,482,966 11,354,283 12,482,966 11,354,283
Subtotal 637,982,536 528,382,921 633,390,907 526,166,681

33.1 (b) By currency

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sri Lankan Rupee 506,118,547 425,498,965 501,609,126 423,282,725
United States Dollar 94,727,986 68,414,361 94,645,778 68,414,361
Great Britain Pound 695,403 731,487 695,403 731,487
Euro 1,545,852 1,017,634 1,545,852 1,017,634
Australian Dollar 514,017 149,680 514,017 149,680
Japanese Yen 71,144 112,514 71,144 112,514
Singapore Dollar 127 127
Bangladesh Taka 34,174,199 32,449,851 34,174,199 32,449,851
Others 135,261 8,429 135,261 8,429
Subtotal 637,982,536 528,382,921 633,390,907 526,166,681

33.1 (c) By Industry

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Agriculture and fishing 63,529,644 45,842,559 63,332,661 45,667,263
Manufacturing 92,030,456 73,304,224 91,982,499 73,282,037
Tourism 46,086,461 33,696,456 45,919,393 33,644,481
Transport 14,892,683 16,684,942 14,800,244 16,592,979
Construction 81,259,365 61,665,875 81,187,168 61,602,932
Trading 94,987,320 78,254,327 93,538,474 77,628,493
New economy (e-commerce, IT, etc.) 15,111,861 14,226,759 15,111,861 14,226,759
Financial and business services 49,066,227 43,466,286 49,740,977 44,264,897
Infrastructure 17,894,260 19,128,131 17,894,260 19,128,131
Other services (Education, Health, Media, etc.) 57,961,305 51,057,181 56,923,320 50,305,657
Other customers 105,162,954 91,056,181 102,960,050 89,823,052
Subtotal 637,982,536 528,382,921 633,390,907 526,166,681

 

33.2 Movement in Provision for Individual and Collective Impairment during the Year

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Movement in Provision for Individual Impairment
Balance as at January 01, 5,369,960 4,334,587 5,369,960 4,334,587
Charge/(write-back) to the Income Statement [Refer Note 18] 3,439,879 1,386,477 3,439,879 1,386,477
Net write-off/(recoveries) during the year (287,226) (490,046) (287,226) (490,046)
Exchange rate variance on foreign currency provisions 51,080 90,680 51,080 90,680
Interest accrued/(reversals) on impaired loans and advances (533,528) (265,344) (533,528) (265,344)
Other movements 413,292 313,606 413,292 313,606
Balance as at December 31, 8,453,457 5,369,960 8,453,457 5,369,960
Movement in Provision for Collective Impairment
Balance as at January 01, 13,089,833 12,835,436 12,681,594 12,621,987
Charge/(write-back) to the Income Statement [Refer Note 18] (1,859,806) 2,710,834 (1,931,932) 2,516,044
Net write-off/(recoveries) during the year (1,835,798) (2,465,797) (1,835,798) (2,465,797)
Exchange rate variance on foreign currency provisions 5,362 9,360 5,358 9,360
Balance as at December 31, 9,399,591 13,089,833 8,919,222 12,681,594
Total of Individual and Collective Impairment 17,853,048 18,459,793 17,372,679 18,051,554

33.3 Lease/Hire Purchase Receivable

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Gross Lease/Hire Purchase Receivable 39,040,966 37,292,636 35,993,964 34,472,653
Within one year [Refer Note 33.3 (a)] 13,440,584 12,781,980 12,631,092 11,619,035
From one to five years [Refer Note 33.3 (b)] 25,250,003 24,424,152 23,358,999 22,851,419
After five years [Refer Note 33.3 (c)] 350,379 86,504 3,873 2,199
Less: Provision for individual impairment [Refer Note 33.3 (d)] 241,185 93,710 241,185 93,710
Provision for collective impairment [Refer Note 33.3 (e)] 681,035 953,696 262,381 556,776
Net lease receivable 38,118,746 36,245,230 35,490,398 33,822,167

33.3 (a) Lease/Hire Purchase Receivable within One Year

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Total Lease/Hire purchase receivable within one year 17,390,714 16,412,304 16,232,578 14,926,248
Less: Unearned lease/hire purchase income 3,950,130 3,630,324 3,601,486 3,307,213
Gross Lease/Hire purchase receivable within one year 13,440,584 12,781,980 12,631,092 11,619,035
Less: Provision for individual impairment 228,553 72,660 228,553 72,660
Provision for collective impairment 364,252 642,514 228,060 488,019
Subtotal 12,847,779 12,066,806 12,174,479 11,058,356

33.3 (b) Lease/Hire Purchase Receivable from One to Five Years

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Total Lease/Hire purchase receivable from one to five years 29,185,428 28,211,137 26,793,674 26,138,901
Less: Unearned lease/hire purchase income 3,935,425 3,786,985 3,434,675 3,287,482
Gross Lease/Hire purchase receivable from one to five years 25,250,003 24,424,152 23,358,999 22,851,419
Less: Provision for individual impairment 12,632 21,050 12,632 21,050
Provision for collective impairment 268,364 307,592 34,319 68,755
Subtotal 24,969,007 24,095,510 23,312,048 22,761,614

33.3 (c) Lease/Hire Purchase Receivable after Five Years

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Total Lease/Hire purchase receivable after five years 354,646 94,062 4,480 2,254
Less: Unearned lease/hire purchase income 4,267 7,558 607 55
Gross Lease/Hire purchase receivable after five years 350,379 86,504 3,873 2,199
Less: Provision for individual impairment
Provision for collective impairment 48,419 3,590 2 2
Subtotal 301,960 82,914 3,871 2,197

33.3 (d) Movement in Provision for Individual Impairment on Lease/Hire Purchase Receivable

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 93,710 60,961 93,710 60,961
Charge/(write-back) to the Income Statement 209,134 55,159 209,134 55,159
Net write-off/(recoveries) during the year (31,648) (21,673) (31,648) (21,673)
Interest accrued on impaired lease/hire purchase receivable (32,268) (4,516) (32,268) (4,516)
Other movements 2,257 3,779 2,257 3,779
Balance as at December 31, 241,185 93,710 241,185 93,710

33.3 (e) Movement in Provision for Collective Impairment on Lease/Hire Purchase Receivable

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 953,696 1,064,533 556,776 856,170
Charge/(write-back) to the Income Statement 1,154,843 620,604 1,133,109 432,047
Net write-off/(recoveries) during the year (1,427,504) (731,441) (1,427,504) (731,441)
Balance as at December 31, 681,035 953,696 262,381 556,776

33.4 Loans Granted from Investment Fund Account (IFA) – Bank

As per the guidelines issued by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Investment Fund Account was established effective from January 01, 2011, by transferring tax savings as explained below:

(a) 5% of the Profits Before Tax (PBT) calculated for Income Tax (IT) purposes, on the dates of making Self-Assessment payments on IT.

(b) 8% of the profits calculated for the payment of Value Added Tax (VAT) on financial services at the time of making payments on VAT.

The Sectoral Distribution of Loans Disbursed under IFA is given below:

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Sector Range of Interest Rates Tenure Amount Outstanding (A) Pending Disbursement (B) Total (A) + (B) Amount Outstanding (A) Pending Disbursement (B) Total (A) + (B)
(%) (Years) Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
(a) Cultivation of plantation crops/ agriculture crops 7.91 – 12.12 5.5 38,636 38,636 65,909 65,909
(b) Factory/mills modernisation/ establishment/expansion 7.91 – 13.12 5.5 192,040 192,040 295,591 51,800 347,391
(c) Infrastructure development 6.80 – 11.00 14.5 3,559,585 98,627 3,658,212 3,886,732 132,414 4,019,146
(d) Construction of hotels and for related purposes 8.41 – 12.62 7 8,236 8,236 10,372 10,372
Capital Outstanding of the Loans granted 3,798,497 98,627 3,897,124 4,258,604 184,214 4,442,818
(e) Interest receivable 175,862 175,862 176,875 176,875
Carrying amount of the Loans granted 3,974,359 98,627 4,072,986 4,435,479 184,214 4,619,693

The requirement to maintain the Investment Fund Account was ceased effective from October 1, 2014 as per the instructions issued by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

 

33.5 Summary of Individually Impaired Loans and Receivables – Bank

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Individually Impaired Loans and Receivables Provision for Individual Impairment Individually Impaired Loans and Receivables Provision for Individual Impairment
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Loans and Advances
Overdrafts 2,311,257 1,554,417 1,336,117 1,007,622
Trade finance 749,241 507,360 548,552 303,921
Lease/hire purchase receivable 444,882 241,185 533,359 93,710
Credit cards
Pawning 4,566 67
Staff loans
Housing loans 480,970 169,831 12,445 6,194
Personal loans 6,586 4,338 2,588 1,753
Term loans 18,109,141 5,976,326 9,309,002 3,956,693
Bills of exchange
Total 22,102,077 8,453,457 11,746,629 5,369,960

The net exposure of Rs. 13,648.620 Mn. (Rs. 6,376.669 Mn. As at December 31, 2015) is covered by collateral valued over Rs. 13,648.620 Mn. (Over Rs. 6,376.669 Mn. as at December 31, 2015) excluding machinery and stocks.

34. Financial Investments – Available-for-Sale

Available-for-sale financial investments include equity and debt securities. Equity investments classified as available-for-sale are those which are neither classified as held-for-trading nor designated at fair value through profit or loss. Debt securities in this category are intended to be held for an indefinite period of time and may be sold in response to needs for liquidity or in response to changes in the market conditions.

The Group has not designated any loans or receivables as available-for-sale. After initial measurement, available-for-sale financial investments are subsequently measured at fair value.

Unrealised gains and losses are recognised in Equity through OCI in the ‘Available-for-sale reserve’. When these financial investments are disposed of, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in Equity is recycled to profit or loss through ‘Operating income’. Interest earned while holding available-for-sale financial investments is reported as ‘Interest income’ using the EIR. Dividend earned while holding available-for-sale financial investments are recognised in the Income Statement as ‘Operating income’ when the right to receive the payment has been established. The losses arising from impairment of such investments are recognised in the Income Statement in ‘Impairment charges for loans and other losses’ and removed from the ‘Available-for-sale reserve’.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Government securities 159,642,243 203,774,930 159,573,316 203,757,409
Government securities – Sri Lanka [Refer Note 34.1 (a)] 159,642,243 193,956,070 159,573,316 193,938,549
Government securities – Bangladesh [Refer Note 34.1 (b)] 9,818,860 9,818,860
Equity securities 293,819 281,450 293,695 281,326
Quoted shares [Refer Notes 34.2.(a) and 34.3.(a)] 246,548 234,839 246,548 234,839
Unquoted shares [Refer Notes 34.2 (b) and 34.3 (b)] 47,271 46,611 47,147 46,487
Investment in Unit Trust [Refer Notes 34.4 and 34.5] 156,460 205,554 156,460 205,554
Total 160,092,522 204,261,934 160,023,471 204,244,289

There were no impairment losses on Financial Investments – Available-for-Sale as at December 31, 2016 (2015 – Nil).

The maturity analysis of Financial Investments – Available-for-Sale is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

34.1 Government Securities

34.1 (a) Government Securities – Sri Lanka

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Treasury bills 17,827,210 8,961,530 17,758,283 8,944,009
Treasury bonds 138,993,358 172,727,815 138,993,358 172,727,815
Sri Lanka sovereign bonds 2,821,675 12,266,725 2,821,675 12,266,725
Subtotal 159,642,243 193,956,070 159,573,316 193,938,549

During 2016, the Sri Lankan operation of the Bank reclassified part of the Treasury Bonds and Sovereign Bonds portfolio amounting Rs. 34,646.318 Mn. (Face value Rs. 35,094.126 Mn.) classified as Available-for-sale (AFS) investments to the Held-to-maturity (HTM) category based on a detailed assessment of the actual intention and ability to hold to maturity. The said re-classification was effected after obtaining written approval from the Board of Directors and the Central Bank of Sri Lanka and this transfer also meets the requirement set out for reclassification under Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 39 on ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’.

34.1 (b) Government Securities – Bangladesh

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Treasury bills 817,545 817,545
Treasury bonds 9,001,315 9,001,315
Subtotal 9,818,860 9,818,860

Bangladesh operation of the Bank reclassified its total Available-for-sale (AFS) portfolio amounting to Rs. 9,556.057Mn. (Face Value Rs. 8,521.690 Mn.) to Held-to-maturity (HTM) category during the year, based on a detailed assessment and the actual intention and ability to hold to maturity.

34.1 (c) Reclassification out of Available-for-sale Investment Securities

During the year Group reclassified part of Available-for-sale investment securities to Held-to-maturity category. The Group identified financial assets that would have met the definition of Held-to-maturity (if they had not been designated as Available-for-sale) for which at the date of reclassification it had the intention and ability to hold them until maturity.

The fair value of the reclassified Available-for-sale investment securities was Rs. 44,202.375 Mn. which was considered to be the new amortised cost of the Held-to-maturity portfolio at the date of reclassification.

The table below sets out the amounts actually recognised in profit or loss and OCI in respect of the financial assets reclassified out of Available-for-sale investment securities.

2016 2015
Profit or loss Rs. ’000 OCI Rs. ’000 Profit or loss Rs. ’000 OCI Rs. ’000
Available-for-sale investment securities reclassified to Held-to-maturity
Interest income 2,830,744
Net impairment loss on financial assets
Net change in fair value
Amount transferred from AFS Reserve to profit of loss 243,331
Total 2,830,744 243,331

The table below sets out the amounts that would have been recognised, if the reclassification had not been made.

2016 2015
Profit or loss Rs. ’000 OCI Rs. ’000 Profit or loss Rs. ’000 OCI Rs. ’000
Available-for-sale investment securities reclassified to Held-to-maturity
Interest income 2,830,744
Net impairment loss on financial assets
Net change in fair value (844,209)
Total 2,830,744 (844,209)

The Effective Interest Rates on reclassified Available-for-sale investment securities that were held as at the Reporting date ranged from 5.25% to 10.74%, with expected recoverable cash flows of Rs. 65,838.057 Mn.

34.2 (a) Equity Securities – As at December 31, 2016

GROUP BANK
No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of Investment No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of Investment
Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sector/Type of Securities
Quoted Shares:
Bank, Finance and Insurance
DFCC Bank PLC 3,496 122.50 428 155 3,496 122.50 428 155
Hatton National Bank PLC 11,950 225.00 2,689 315 11,950 225.00 2,689 315
Nations Trust Bank PLC 1,333 80.90 108 22 1,333 80.90 108 22
National Development Bank PLC 5,424 156.00 846 215 5,424 156.00 846 215
Sampath Bank PLC 3,914 260.40 1,019 72 3,914 260.40 1,019 72
Seylan Bank PLC 1,015 90.00 91 24 1,015 90.00 91 24
VISA Inc. 19,424 US $ 78.02 226,940 19,424 US $ 78.02 226,940
Subtotal 232,121 803 232,121 803
Manufacturing
Alumex PLC 714,200 20.20 14,427 9,999 714,200 20.20 14,427 9,999
Subtotal 14,427 9,999 14,427 9,999
Total 246,548 10,802 246,548 10,802

34.2 (b) Equity Securities – As at December 31, 2016

GROUP BANK
No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of Investment No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of Investment
Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sector/Type of Securities
Unquoted Shares:
Bank, Finance and Insurance
Central Depository of Bangladesh Ltd. 3,427,083 BDT 2.75 17,953 17,953 3,427,083 BDT 2.75 17,953 17,953
Credit Information Bureau of Sri Lanka 5,637 100.00 564 564 4,400 100.00 440 440
Fitch Ratings Lanka Ltd. 62,500 10.00 625 625 62,500 10.00 625 625
LankaClear (Pvt) Ltd. 1,000,000 10.00 10,000 10,000 1,000,000 10.00 10,000 10,000
Lanka Financial Services Bureau Ltd. 225,000 10.00 2,250 2,250 225,000 10.00 2,250 2,250
Lanka Ratings Agency Ltd. 689,590 12.50 8,620 8,620 689,590 12.50 8,620 8,620
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) 47 EUR 978.01 7,259 7,259 47 EUR 978.01 7,259 7,259
Total 47,271 47,271 47,147 47,147

34.2 (c) Sector/Industry Composition of the Equity Securities – As at December 31, 2016

GROUP Bank
Market Value Cost of Investment Market Value Cost of Investment
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sector/Industry
Bank, Finance and Insurance 279,392 48,074 279,268 47,950
Manufacturing 14,427 9,999 14,427 9,999
Total 293,819 58,073 293,695 57,949

34.3 (a) Equity Securities – As at December 31, 2015

GROUP BANK
No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of Investment No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of Investment
Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sector/Type of Securities
Quoted Shares:
Bank, Finance and Insurance
DFCC Bank PLC 3,496 168.10 588 155 3,496 168.10 588 155
Hatton National Bank PLC 11,760 210.60 2,477 315 11,760 210.60 2,477 315
Nations Trust Bank PLC 1,333 86.30 115 22 1,333 86.30 115 22
National Development Bank PLC 5,424 194.10 1,053 215 5,424 194.10 1,053 215
Sampath Bank PLC 3,811 248.00 945 72 3,811 248.00 945 72
Seylan Bank PLC 1,015 95.00 96 24 1,015 95.00 96 24
VISA Inc. 19,424 US $ 77.55 217,138 19,424 US $ 77.55 217,138
Subtotal 222,412 803 222,412 803
Manufacturing
Alumex PLC 714,200 17.40 12,427 9,999 714,200 17.40 12,427 9,999
Subtotal 12,427 9,999 12,427 9,999
Total 234,839 10,802 234,839 10,802

34.3 (b) Equity Securities – As at December 31, 2015

GROUP BANK
No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of Investment No. of Shares Market Price Market Value Cost of Investment
Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sector/Type of Securities
Unquoted Shares:
Bank, Finance and Insurance
Central Depository of Bangladesh Ltd. 3,427,083 BDT 2.75 17,293 17,293 3,427,083 BDT 2.75 17,293 17,293
Credit Information Bureau of Sri Lanka 5,637 100.00 564 564 4,400 100.00 440 440
Fitch Ratings Lanka Ltd. 62,500 10.00 625 625 62,500 10.00 625 625
LankaClear (Pvt) Ltd. 1,000,000 10.00 10,000 10,000 1,000,000 10.00 10,000 10,000
Lanka Financial Services Bureau Ltd. 225,000 10.00 2,250 2,250 225,000 10.00 2,250 2,250
Lanka Ratings Agency Ltd. 689,590 12.50 8,620 8,620 689,590 12.50 8,620 8,620
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) 47 EUR 912.77 7,259 7,259 47 EUR 912.77 7,259 7,259
Total 46,611 46,611 46,487 46,487

34.3 (c) Sector/Industry Composition of the Equity Securities – As at December 31, 2015

GROUP Bank
Market Value Cost of Investment Market Value Cost of Investment
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sector/Industry
Bank, Finance and Insurance 269,023 47,414 268,899 47,290
Manufacturing 12,427 9,999 12,427 9,999
Total 281,450 57,413 281,326 57,289

34.4 Investment in Unit Trust – As at December 31, 2016

GROUP Bank
Market Value Cost of Investment Market Value Cost of Investment
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sector/Industry
Bank, Finance and Insurance
Capital Alliance Investment Ltd. 156,460 153,849 156,460 153,849
Total 156,460 153,849 156,460 153,849

34.5 Investment in Unit Trust – As at December 31, 2015

GROUP Bank
Market Value Cost of Investment Market Value Cost of Investment
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Sector/Industry
Bank, Finance and Insurance
Capital Alliance Investment Ltd. 205,554 201,402 205,554 201,402
Total 205,554 201,402 205,554 201,402

35. Financial Investments – Held-to-Maturity

Held-to-maturity financial investments are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturities, that the Group has the positive intention and ability to hold to maturity, and which are not designated as at Fair value through profit or loss or Available-for-sale. After initial measurement, held-to-maturity financial investments are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR, less provision for impairment. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees that are an integral part of the EIR. The amortisation is included in ‘Interest Income’ while the losses arising from impairment of such investments are recognised in ‘Impairment charges for loans and other losses’ in the Income Statement.

A sale or reclassification of a more than insignificant amount of held-to-maturity investments would result in the reclassification of all held-to-maturity investments as available-for-sale, and would prevent the Group from classifying investment securities as held-to-maturity for the current and the following two financial years. However, sales and reclassifications in any of the following circumstances would not trigger a reclassification:

  • sales or reclassifications that are so close to maturity that changes in the market rate of interest would not have a significant effect on the financial asset’s fair value;
  • sales or reclassifications after the Group has collected substantially all of the asset’s original principal; and
  • Sales or reclassifications that are attributable to non-recurring isolated events beyond the Group’s control that could not have been reasonably anticipated.
GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Government securities – Sri Lanka 50,980,717 50,980,717
Treasury bonds 36,599,599 36,599,599
Sri Lanka sovereign bonds 14,381,118 14,381,118
Government securities – Bangladesh 10,000,581 10,000,581
Treasury bills 1,524,677 1,524,677
Treasury bonds 8,475,904 8,475,904
Government securities – Maldives 2,645,300
Treasury bills 2,645,300
Total 63,626,598 60,981,298

Please refer Notes 34.1 (a) and 34.1 (b) on page 252 for the details of re-classification to Held-to-maturity (HTM) investments from Available-for-sale (AFS) category effected during the year.

The maturity analysis of Financial Investments – Held-to-maturity is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

36. Financial Investments – Loans and Receivables

Financial investments classified as loans and receivables include unquoted debt instruments. After initial measurement, these are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR, less provision for impairment. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees and costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The amortisation is included in ‘Interest Income’ while the losses arising from impairment are recognised in ‘Impairment charges for loans and other losses’ in the Income Statement.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Investments in Government Securities [Refer Note 36.1] 40,076,392 44,925,168 40,076,392 44,925,168
Other Investments [Refer Note 36.2] 11,747,634 12,799,201 11,747,634 12,799,201
Total 51,824,026 57,724,369 51,824,026 57,724,369

36.1 Investments in Government Securities

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Treasury Bonds 605,737 605,737
Sri Lanka Development Bonds 40,076,392 44,319,431 40,076,392 44,319,431
Total 40,076,392 44,925,168 40,076,392 44,925,168

36.2 Other Investments

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Debentures [Refer Note 36.2.1] 11,236,208 11,272,757 11,236,208 11,272,757
Trust certificates [Refer Note 36.2.2] 511,208 1,140,613 511,208 1,140,613
Corporate investments in Bangladesh [Refer Note 36.2.3] 218 385,831 218 385,831
Total 11,747,634 12,799,201 11,747,634 12,799,201

The maturity analysis of Financial Investments – Loans and Receivables is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

36.2.1 Debentures

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
No of Debentures Carrying Value No of Debentures Carrying Value No of Debentures Carrying Value No of Debentures Carrying Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Central Finance Company PLC 2,349,400 391,976 2,534,900 439,344 2,349,400 391,976 2,534,900 439,344
Commercial Leasing and Finance PLC 10,000,000 1,097,767 10,000,000 1,043,808 10,000,000 1,097,767 10,000,000 1,043,808
DFCC Bank PLC 18,000,000 1,857,008 18,000,000 1,857,008 18,000,000 1,857,008 18,000,000 1,857,008
Dunamis Capital PLC 500,000 50,403 500,000 50,403 500,000 50,403 500,000 50,403
Hayleys PLC 10,878,400 1,114,983 10,966,800 1,206,558 10,878,400 1,114,983 10,966,800 1,206,558
Hemas Holdings PLC 525,900 54,048 525,900 54,048 525,900 54,048 525,900 54,048
Lanka Orix Leasing Company PLC 20,000,000 2,045,370 20,000,000 2,045,370 20,000,000 2,045,370 20,000,000 2,045,370
Lion Brewery (Ceylon) PLC 400,000 413,177 600,000 611,968 400,000 413,177 600,000 611,968
Mercantile Investments and Finance PLC 418,650 42,551 418,650 42,551 418,650 42,551 418,650 42,551
MTD Walkers PLC 3,000,000 307,373 3,000,000 307,453 3,000,000 307,373 3,000,000 307,453
Nawaloka Hospitals PLC 2,290,000 237,167 2,290,000 237,167 2,290,000 237,167 2,290,000 237,167
Orient Finance PLC 1,968,800 197,173 1,968,800 197,173 1,968,800 197,173 1,968,800 197,173
People's Leasing & Finance PLC 6,924,200 751,180 6,924,200 751,133 6,924,200 751,180 6,924,200 751,133
Richard Pieris and Company PLC 6,763,400 695,136 6,763,400 695,136 6,763,400 695,136 6,763,400 695,136
Senkadagala Finance PLC 200,684 20,941 401,368 41,869 200,684 20,941 401,368 41,869
Singer (Sri Lanka) PLC 9,598,100 998,155 5,972,938 622,475 9,598,100 998,155 5,972,938 622,475
Singer Finance (Lanka) PLC 5,914,610 631,335 6,336,030 661,672 5,914,610 631,335 6,336,030 661,672
Softlogic Finance PLC 3,223,400 330,465 3,223,400 330,465 3,223,400 330,465 3,223,400 330,465
Abans PLC 720,700 77,156 720,700 77,156
Subtotal 11,236,208 11,272,757 11,236,208 11,272,757

The above debentures are stated at amortised cost and classified under Financial Investments – Loans and Receivables due to the absence of an active market.

36.2.2 Trust Certificates

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Carrying Value Carrying Value Carrying Value Carrying Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Assetline Leasing Company Ltd. 141,699 319,009 141,699 319,009
Mercantile Investments & Finance PLC 38,494 361,378 38,494 361,378
People’s Leasing & Finance PLC 213,303 338,364 213,303 338,364
Richard Pieris Finance Ltd. 117,712 121,862 117,712 121,862
Subtotal 511,208 1,140,613 511,208 1,140,613

36.2.3 Corporate Investments in Bangladesh

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Carrying Value Carrying Value Carrying Value Carrying Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Price Bonds 218 1,501 218 1,501
Commercial Papers 384,330 384,330
Sub total 218 385,831 218 385,831

37. Investments in Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are investees controlled by the Group. The Group ‘controls’ an investee if it is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. The Group reassesses whether it has control if there are changes to one or more of the elements of control. This includes circumstances in which protective rights held (e.g. those resulting from a lending relationship) become substantive and lead to the Group having power over an investee.

The cost of an acquisition is measured at fair value of the consideration, including contingent consideration. The acquired identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities are measured at their fair values at the date of acquisition. Subsequent to the initial measurement the Bank continues to recognise the investments in Subsidiaries at cost.

The Financial Statements of Subsidiaries are included in the Consolidated Financial Statements from the date on which control commences until the date when control ceases.

The Financial Statements of all Subsidiaries in the Group have a common financial year which ends on December 31, except for the Serendib Finance Ltd., a licensed finance company, whose financial year ends on March 31. The Financial Statements of the Bank’s Subsidiaries are prepared using consistent accounting policies.

The reason for using a different Reporting date by the aforesaid subsidiary is due to the requirement imposed by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka for licensed finance companies to publish their key financial data and key performance indicators for a 12-month period ending March 31 and 6 month period ending September 30, every year, in accordance with a format prescribed by the Director of the Department of Supervision of Non-Bank Financial Institutions of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

All intra-group balances, transactions, unrealised gains and losses resulting from intra-group transactions, income and expenses are eliminated in full.

There are no significant restrictions on the ability of Subsidiaries to transfer funds to the Parent (the Bank) in the form of cash dividend or repayment of loans and advances.

All Subsidiaries of the Bank have been incorporated in Sri Lanka except Commex Sri Lanka S.R.L. which was incorporated in Italy and Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited which was incorporated in the Republic of Maldives.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Holding Cost Market Value/ Directors’ Valuation Cost Market Value/ Directors’ Valuation Cost Market Value/ Directors’ Valuation Cost Market Value/ Directors’ Valuation
% Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Local Subsidiaries:
Quoted:
Commercial Development Company PLC 93.85* 272,363 845,755 273,610 1,047,611
(11,261,717 Ordinary Shares) (@ Rs. 92.60) (@ Rs. 92.60)
(11,313,290 Ordinary Shares as at December 31, 2015) (94.28 in 2015)
 
Unquoted:
ONEzero Company Ltd. 100 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000
(500,001 Ordinary Shares) (@ Rs. 10.00) (@ Rs. 10.00)
(500,001 Ordinary Shares as at December 31, 2015)
 
Unquoted:
Serendib Finance Ltd. 100 1,116,046 1,116,046 916,046 916,046
(21,600,000 Ordinary Shares)
(21,600,000 Ordinary Shares as at December 31, 2015)
 
Foreign Subsidiary:
Unquoted:
Commex – Sri Lanka S.R.L. (incorporated in Italy) (**) 100 193,080 27,140 193,080 42,490
Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited (***) 55 1,014,843 1,014,843
Gross Total 2,601,332 3,008,784 1,387,736 2,011,147
Provision for impairment [Refer Note 37.1] (165,940) (150,590)
Net Total 2,435,392 3,008,784 1,237,146 2,011,147

(*) During 2015, the Board of Directors of the Bank resolved to reduce the shareholding of Commercial Development Company PLC, (in which the Bank originally had a stake of 94.55%) to comply with the requirements of the Listing Rule No. 7.13 of the Colombo Stock Exchange on Minimum Public Holding. Accordingly, the Bank disposed 83,988 shares since November 2015 through the Colombo Stock Exchange and reduced the shareholding in the above Company to 93.85% by December 31, 2016 and is in the process of taking steps to dispose the required number of shares to adhere to the requirements of the Listing Rules./p>

Consequent to the above disposal, ownership interests of the Bank has changed while retaining control. As per SLFRS 10 on ‘Consolidated Financial Statements’, changes in a parent’s ownership interest in a subsidiary that do not result in the parent losing control are equity transactions and hence, the resulting gain/loss is recognised in equity.

(**) During the year, Commex Sri Lanka S.R.L., a fully-owned subsidiary of the Bank, inaugurated its money transfer operation in Italy, following the grant of a Money Transfer License from the Bank of Italy. However, the Bank has made provisions for the expenses incurred on Account of Italy operations before finalising the Bank’s Financial Statements.

(***) Commercial Bank of Maldives, a subsidiary of the Bank partnering with Treetop Investments Maldives, formally inaugurated banking operations in the Maldives on September 26, 2016. The Bank holds a majority stake of 55% and the Maldivian partner owns 45%.

The following table summarises the information relating to the Group’s subsidiary that has a material non-controlling interest (NCI).

Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited Non-controlling interest (NCI) percentage – 45%

As at December 31, 2016
Rs. ’000
Cash and cash equivalents 2,721,818
Balances with Central Banks 62,053
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 2,645,299
Loans and advances 81,797
Other assets 22,737
Liabilities 3,946,301
Net assets value 1,706,094
Carrying amount of Non-controlling interest (NCI) 767,743
 
Revenue 20,496
Loss (107,728)
Loss allocated to Non-controlling interest (NCI) (48,478)
 
Cash flows from operating activities 3,331,906
Cash flows from investing activities (2,804,158)
Cash flows from financing activities 1,845,168
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents 2,372,916

The maturity analysis of Investments in Subsidiaries is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

37.1 Movement in Provision for Impairment o/a Subsidiaries during the Year

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 150,590 114,367
Charge/(Write back) to the Income Statement [Refer Note 18] 15,350 36,223
Balance as at December 31, 165,940 150,590

The Bank made a provision against its investment in Commex – Sri Lanka S.R.L which is incorporated in Italy to bring the investment value in line with the net assets value of the said Subsidiary based on an assessment of impairment. Accordingly, the total amount provided for impairment as at December 31, 2016 is Rs.165.940 Mn. (2015 – Rs. 150.590 Mn.)

38. Investments in Associates

Associates are those entities in which the Group has significant influence, but not control, over the variable returns through its power over the investee. Significant influence is presumed to exist when the Group holds 20% or more of the voting power of another entity.

Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method and are recognised initially at cost, in terms of Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 28 on ‘Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures’. The Group’s investment includes goodwill identified on acquisition, net of any accumulated impairment losses. The Consolidated Financial Statements include the Group’s share of the income and expenses and equity movements of equity-accounted investees, after adjustments to align the Accounting Policies with those of the Group, from the date that significant influence commences until the date that significant influence ceases. Accordingly, under the Equity Method, investments in Associates are carried at cost plus post-acquisition changes in the Group’s share of net assets of the Associates and are reported as a separate line item in the Statement of Financial Position. The Income Statement reflects the Group’s share of the results of operations of the Associates. Any change in OCI of those investees is presented as part of the Group’s OCI. In addition, when there has been a change recognised directly in the equity of the Associate, the Group recognises its share of any changes, when applicable, in Equity through OCI. Unrealised gains and losses resulting from transactions between the Group and the Associate are eliminated to the extent of the interest in Associate.

When the Group’s share of losses exceeds its interest in an equity-accounted investee, the carrying amount of that interest, including any long-term investments, is reduced to nil and the recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that the Group has an obligation or has made payments on behalf of the investee. If the Associate subsequently reports profits, the Group resumes recognising its share of those profits only after its share of the profits equal the share of losses not recognised previously.

The Group discontinues the use of the Equity Method from the date that it ceases to have significant influence over an Associate and accounts for such investments in accordance with the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 39 on ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’.

Upon loss of significant influence over the Associate, the Group measures and recognises any retained investment at its fair value. Any difference between the carrying amount of the Associate upon loss of significant influence and the fair value of the retained investment and proceeds from disposal is recognised in profit or loss.

After application of the Equity Method, the Group determines whether it is necessary to recognise an impairment loss on its investment in its Associate. At each Reporting date, the Group determines whether there is objective evidence that the investment in the Associate is impaired. If there is such evidence, the Group calculates the amount of impairment as the difference between the recoverable amount of the Associate and its carrying value, and recognises the loss as ‘Share of profits of associates’ in the Income Statement.

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Incorporation and operation Ownership Interest No. of Shares Cost Carrying Value Cost Carrying Value
% Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Equity Investments Lanka Ltd. Sri Lanka 22.92 4,110,938 44,331 68,621 44,331 67,373
Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. Sri Lanka 18.77(*) 120,000 100 40,238 100 37,130
44,431 108,859 44,431 104,503

(*) 20% stake of Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. is held by Commercial Development Company PLC, a 93.85% owned Subsidiary of the Bank, which is listed on the Colombo Stock Exchange. The Bank has a significant influence over financial and operating activities of Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. though it effectively holds only 18.77%.

38.1 Reconciliation of Summarised Financial Information

Reconciliation of the summarised financial information to the carrying amount of the interest in Associates recognised in the Consolidated Financial Statements is as follows:

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Equity Investments Lanka Ltd. Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. Total Equity Investments Lanka Ltd. Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. Total
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cost of investments 44,331 100 44,431 44,331 100 44,431
Add: Share of Profit Applicable to the Group
Investment in associate as at January 01, 23,043 37,030 60,073 27,803 34,053 61,856
Total Comprehensive Income 5,358 4,903 10,261 1,405 3,544 4,949
Profit/(loss) for the period recognised in Income Statement, net of tax 1,645 4,809 6,454 9,916 3,722 13,638
Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income, net of tax 3,713 94 3,807 (8,511) (178) (8,689)
Movement due to change in ownership (98) (98)
Transactions which are recorded directly in equity
Dividend received (4,111) (1,697) (5,808) (6,166) (567) (6,733)
Balance as at December 31, 68,621 40,238 108,859 67,373 37,130 104,503

38.2 Summarised Financial Information in Respect of Associates is set out below:

38.2 (a) Summarised Income Statement

For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015
Equity Investments Lanka Ltd. Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. Total Equity Investments Lanka Ltd. Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. Total
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Percentage Ownership Interest
Revenue 28,000 252,335 280,335 59,436 224,373 283,809
Expenses (21,602) (214,731) (236,333) (16,926) (192,222) (209,148)
Income Tax 783 (12,090) (11,307) 754 (12,468) (11,714)
Profit from continuing operations, net of tax 7,181 25,514 32,695 43,264 19,683 62,947
Group’s share of profit from continuing operations, net of tax 1,645 4,809 6,454 9,916 3,722 13,638
Other Comprehensive Income, net of tax 16,201 499 16,700 (37,134) (939) (38,073)
Group’s share of Other Comprehensive Income from continuing operations, net of tax 3,713 94 3,807 (8,511) (178) (8,689)
Share of results of equity-accounted investee recognised in Income Statement and Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income 5,358 4,903 10,261 1,405 3,544 4,949

38.2 (b) Summarised Statement of Financial Position

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Equity Investments Lanka Ltd. Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd. Equity Investments Lanka Ltd. Commercial Insurance Brokers (Pvt) Ltd.
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Percentage ownership interest
Non-current assets 194,144 143,515 207,786 141,015
Current assets 114,197 152,333 94,757 128,868
Non-current liabilities (5,975) (22,366) (5,618) (21,199)
Current liabilities (2,974) (60,020) (2,975) (52,334)
Net assets 299,392 213,462 293,950 196,350
Group’s share of net assets 68,621 40,238 67,373 37,130
Less: Unrealised profits
Carrying amount of interest in associates 68,621 40,238 67,373 37,130

The Group recognises the share of net assets of the Associates under the Equity Method to arrive at the Directors’ valuation.

The maturity analysis of Investments of Associates is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

39. Property, Plant & Equipment

The Group applies the requirements of the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard - LKAS 16 on ‘Property, Plant & Equipment’ in accounting for its owned assets (including buildings under operating leases where the Group is the lessor) which are held for and used in the provision of services, for rental to others or for administrative purposes and are expected to be used for more than one year.

Basis of Recognition

Property, Plant & Equipment is recognised if it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the asset will flow to the Group and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Basis of Measurement

An item of Property, Plant & Equipment that qualifies for recognition as an asset is initially measured at its cost. Cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset and subsequent costs (excluding the costs of day-to-day servicing) as explained in Note below. The cost of self-constructed assets includes the cost of materials and direct labour, any other costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to a working condition for its intended use and the costs of dismantling and removing the items and restoring the site on which they are located and capitalised borrowing costs. Purchased software which is integral to the functionality of the related equipment is capitalised as part of Computer Equipment.

When parts of an item of Property, Plant & Equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of Property, Plant & Equipment.

  • Cost Model

    The Group applies the Cost Model to all Property, Plant & Equipment except freehold land and freehold & leasehold buildings. These are recorded at cost of purchase together with any incidental expenses thereon, less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

  • Revaluation Model

    The Group revalued all its freehold land and freehold & leasehold buildings as at December 31, 2014. Methods and significant assumptions including unobservable market inputs employed in estimating the fair value together with the sensitivity of same are given in Note 39.5 (b) and Note 39.5 (c).

Subsequent Cost

Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it is probable that the future economic benefits of the expenditure will flow to the Group. Ongoing repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred.

Derecognition

An item of Property, Plant & Equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset), is recognised in ‘Other Income (Net)’ in profit or loss in the year the asset is derecognised.

When replacement costs are recognised in the carrying amount of an item of Property, Plant & Equipment, the remaining carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised as required by Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 16 on ‘Property, Plant & Equipment’.

Capital Work-in-Progress

These are expenses of a capital nature directly incurred in the construction of buildings, major plant and machinery and system development, awaiting capitalisation. These are stated in the Statement of Financial Position at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Capital work-in-progress is transferred to the relevant asset when it is in the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management (i.e. available for use).

39.1 Group – 2016

Freehold Land Freehold Buildings Leasehold Buildings Computer Equipment Motor Vehicles Office Equipment, Furniture & Fixtures Capital Work-in- Progress Total 2016 Total 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs.’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cost/Valuation
Balance as at January 01, 4,924,702 2,635,938 1,080,861 3,880,784 335,180 4,514,891 358,439 17,730,795 16,810,952
Additions/transfers during the year 379,169 2,507 643,084 44,457 746,335 (314,482) 1,501,070 1,086,405
Disposals during the year (10,419) (905) (275,233) (31,768) (72,080) (390,405) (209,304)
Exchange rate variance 4,772 1,964 12,935 19,671 42,742
Adjustments 11,666 (11,666)
Balance as at December 31, 4,914,283 3,014,202 1,083,368 4,265,073 349,833 5,190,415 43,957 18,861,131 17,730,795
Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment Losses
Balance as at January 01, 91,285 62,296 2,973,701 217,350 3,204,730 6,549,362 5,676,091
Charge for the year [Refer Note 20] 94,171 29,887 413,528 40,519 514,983 1,093,088 1,024,162
Disposals during the year (42) (271,541) (30,511) (66,538) (368,632) (187,573)
Exchange rate variance 4,351 1,964 11,332 17,647 36,682
Transfers/adjustments 1,207 (1,207)
Balance as at December 31, 185,414 92,183 3,121,246 229,322 3,663,300 7,291,465 6,549,362
Net book value as at December 31, 2016 4,914,283 2,828,788 991,185 1,143,827 120,511 1,527,115 43,957 11,569,666
Net book value as at December 31, 2015 4,924,702 2,544,653 1,018,565 907,083 117,830 1,310,161 358,439 11,181,433

39.2 Group – 2015

Freehold Land Freehold Buildings Leasehold Buildings Computer Equipment Motor Vehicles Office Equipment, Furniture & Fixtures Capital Work-in- Progress Total 2015 Total 2014
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs.’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cost/Valuation
Balance as at January 01, 4,883,273 2,549,352 992,126 3,518,719 327,762 4,131,515 408,205 16,810,952 14,449,047
Property, Plant & Equipment acquired on business combination 216,168
Additions/transfers during the year 41,429 153,299 22,022 441,459 41,428 436,534 (49,766) 1,086,405 1,072,322
Transfer of accumulated depreciation on assets revalued (243,872)
Surplus on revaluation of property 1,812,757
Disposals during the year (89,418) (38,262) (81,624) (209,304) (491,897)
Exchange rate variance 10,024 4,252 28,466 42,742 (3,573)
Adjustments (66,713) 66,713
Balance as at December 31, 4,924,702 2,635,938 1,080,861 3,880,784 335,180 4,514,891 358,439 17,730,795 16,810,952
Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment Losses
Balance as at January 01, 608 34,369 2,719,287 205,193 2,716,634 5,676,091 5,273,822
Accumulated depreciation assumed on business combination 17,068
Charge for the year [Refer Note 20] 90,677 27,927 334,108 41,274 530,176 1,024,162 1,087,175
Reversal of over provided depreciation (243,872)
Disposals during the year (88,532) (33,269) (65,772) (187,573) (456,362)
Exchange rate variance 8,838 4,152 23,692 36,682 (1,740)
Transfers/adjustments
Balance as at December 31, 91,285 62,296 2,973,701 217,350 3,204,730 6,549,362 5,676,091
Net book value as at December 31, 2015 4,924,702 2,544,653 1,018,565 907,083 117,830 1,310,161 358,439 11,181,433
Net book value as at December 31, 2014 4,883,273 2,548,744 957,757 799,432 122,569 1,414,881 408,205 11,134,861

There were no capitalised borrowing cost related to the acquisition of Property, Plant & Equipment during the year 2016 (2015 – Nil).

The carrying amount of Group’s revalued assets that would have been included in the Financial Statements had the assets been carried at cost less depreciation/amortisation is as follows:

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Cost Accumulated Depreciation Net Book Value Cost Accumulated Depreciation Net Book Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Class of Asset
Freehold land 742,730 742,730 753,149 753,149
Freehold buildings 1,544,666 357,334 1,187,332 1,166,621 328,170 838,451
Leasehold buildings 350,867 165,344 185,523 348,360 154,886 193,474
Total 2,638,263 522,678 2,115,585 2,268,130 483,056 1,785,074

39.3 Bank – 2016

Freehold Land Freehold Buildings Leasehold Buildings Computer Equipment Motor Vehicles Office Equipment, Furniture & Fixtures Capital Work-in- Progress Total 2016 Total 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cost/Valuation
Balance as at January 01, 4,797,273 2,534,238 189,966 3,864,859 127,798 4,475,277 354,453 16,343,864 15,493,095
Additions/transfers during the year 378,045 2,507 620,541 6,177 676,941 (314,482) 1,369,729 986,735
Disposals during the year (275,233) (12,057) (71,236) (358,526) (177,835)
Exchange rate variance 4,772 1,964 12,878 19,614 41,869
Adjustments 11,666 (11,666)
Balance as at December 31, 4,797,273 2,912,283 192,473 4,226,605 123,882 5,082,194 39,971 17,374,681 16,343,864
Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment Losses
Balance as at January 01, 88,587 38,850 2,964,201 106,732 3,176,509 6,374,879 5,540,004
Charge for the year [Refer Note 20] 92,078 5,809 409,811 9,485 505,465 1,022,648 961,492
Disposals during the year (271,541) (10,850) (65,882) (348,273) (162,124)
Exchange rate variance 4,351 1,964 11,287 17,602 35,507
Adjustments 1,207 (1,207)
Balance as at December 31, 180,665 44,659 3,108,029 107,331 3,626,172 7,066,856 6,374,879
Net book value as at December 31, 2016 4,797,273 2,731,618 147,814 1,118,576 16,551 1,456,022 39,971 10,307,825
Net book value as at December 31, 2015 4,797,273 2,445,651 151,116 900,658 21,066 1,298,768 354,453 9,968,985

39.4 Bank – 2015

Freehold Land Freehold Buildings Leasehold Buildings Computer Equipment Motor Vehicles Office Equipment – Furniture & Fixtures Capital Work in Progress Total 2015 Total 2014
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cost/Valuation
Balance as at January 01, 4,797,273 2,458,352 104,625 3,504,292 129,047 4,095,287 404,219 15,493,095 13,499,527
Additions/transfers during the year 142,599 18,628 439,313 3,958 432,003 (49,766) 986,735 989,864
Transfer of accumulated depreciation on assets revalued (206,238)
Surplus on revaluation of property 1,621,489
Disposals during the year (88,770) (9,459) (79,606) (177,835) (410,543)
Exchange rate variance 10,024 4,252 27,593 41,869 (1,004)
Adjustments (66,713) 66,713
Balance as at December 31, 4,797,273 2,534,238 189,966 3,864,859 127,798 4,475,277 354,453 16,343,864 15,493,095
Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment Losses
Balance as at January 01, 34,368 2,711,315 99,461 2,694,860 5,540,004 5,112,183
Charge for the year [Refer Note 20] 88,587 4,482 331,996 12,578 523,849 961,492 1,026,730
Transfer of accumulated depreciation on assets revalued (206,238)
Disposals during the year (87,948) (9,459) (64,717) (162,124) (391,978)
Exchange rate variance 8,838 4,152 22,517 35,507 (693)
Transfers/adjustments
Balance as at December 31, 88,587 38,850 2,964,201 106,732 3,176,509 6,374,879 5,540,004
Net book value as at December 31, 2015 4,797,273 2,445,651 151,116 900,658 21,066 1,298,768 354,453 9,968,985
Net book value as at December 31, 2014 4,797,273 2,458,352 70,257 792,977 29,586 1,400,427 404,219 9,953,091

There were no capitalised borrowing costs related to the acquisition of Property, Plant & Equipment during the year 2016 (2015 – Nil).

The carrying amount of Bank’s revalued assets that would have been included in the Financial Statements had the assets been carried at cost less depreciation/amortisation is as follows:

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Cost Accumulated Depreciation Net Book Value Cost Accumulated Depreciation Net Book Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Class of Asset
Freehold land 660,987 660,987 660,987 660,987
Freehold buildings 1,484,701 350,755 1,133,946 1,106,656 323,089 783,567
Leasehold buildings 190,574 50,471 140,103 188,067 45,707 142,360
Total 2,336,262 401,226 1,935,036 1,955,710 368,796 1,586,914

The maturity analysis of Property, Plant & Equipment is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

39.5 (a) Information on Freehold Land and Buildings of the Bank – Extents and Locations

[As required by the Rule No. 7.6 (viii) of the ‘Continuing Listing Requirements’ of the Colombo Stock Exchange]

Location Extent (Perches) Buildings (Square Feet) Revalued Amounts Land Rs. ’000 Revalued Amounts Buildings Rs. ’000 Net Book Value/ Revalued Rs. ’000 Net Book Value before Revaluation Rs. ’000
CEO’s Bungalow – No. 27, Queens Road, Colombo 3 64 5,616 544,850 15,150 553,940 421,459
Holiday Bungalow – Bandarawela, Ambatenne Estate, Bandarawela 423 5,649 56,700 11,400 67,109 61,436
Holiday Bungalow – Haputale No. 23, Lilly Avenue, Welimada Road, Haputale 258 5,662 30,900 15,300 44,500 38,713
Branch Buildings
Battaramulla – No. 213, Kaduwela Road, Battaramulla 14 11,216 52,500 87,375 131,138 79,866
Battaramulla – No. 213, Kaduwela Road, Battaramulla 13 Bare Land 50,000 50,000 52,399
Borella – No. 92, D.S. Senanayake Mawatha, Borella, Colombo 8 16 16,880 156,300 198,700 340,805 126,331
Chilaw – No. 44, Colombo Road, Chilaw 35 9,420 63,522 38,000 99,622 126,541
Galewela – No. 49/57, Matale Road, Galewela 99 18,472 22,275 15,225 36,739 32,012
Galle City – No. 130, Main Street, Galle 7 3,675 40,500 8,269 48,156 40,277
Galle Fort – No. 22, Church Street, Fort, Galle 100 11,625 210,000 40,000 248,000 146,256
Gampaha – No. 51, Queen Mary’s Road, Gampaha 33 4,685 57,575 10,541 67,511 61,463
Hikkaduwa – No. 217, Galle Road, Hikkaduwa 37 6,713 26,370 24,608 49,647 37,518
Ja-Ela – No. 140, Negombo Road, Ja-Ela 13 7,468 29,000 21,000 48,727 38,741
Jaffna – No. 474, Hospital Road, Jaffna 77 5,146 581,000 19,000 598,100 283,456
Kandy – No. 120, Kotugodella Veediya, Kandy 45 44,500 354,000 231,000 568,500 549,953
Kegalle – No. 186, Main Street, Kegalle 85 2,650 128,000 7,000 134,500 121,300
Keyzer Street – No. 32, Keyzer Street, Colombo 11 7 6,100 56,000 26,000 80,700 68,128
Kollupitiya – No. 285, Galle Road, Colombo 3 17 16,254 115,000 65,000 175,357 158,283
Kotahena – No. 198, George R. De Silva Mawatha, Kotahena, Colombo 13 28 26,722 140,000 207,400 337,030 314,958
Kurunegala – No. 4, Suratissa Mawatha, Kurunegala 50 9,821 199,325 34,675 232,267 218,636
Maharagama – No. 154, High Level Road, Maharagama 18 8,440 53,250 31,750 83,413 101,015
Matale – No. 70, King Street, Matale 51 8,596 75,000 60,000 131,667 117,358
Matara – No. 18, Station Road, Matara 37 8,137 50,695 25,291 74,655 50,470
Minuwangoda – No. 42, Siriwardena Mawatha, Minuwangoda 25 5,550 31,250 17,690 48,010 71,655
Mutwal – No. 160, St. James Street, Colombo 15 17 Bare Land 34,000 34,000 22,300
Narahenpita – No. 201, Kirula Road, Narahenpita, Colombo 5 22 11,193 132,300 87,700 213,736 162,939
Narammala – No. 55, Negombo Road, Narammala 42 5,353 53,391 16,609 69,170 58,843
Negombo – Nos. 24, 26, Fernando Avenue, Negombo 37 11,360 73,000 31,000 101,520 73,940
Nugegoda – No. 100, Stanley Thilakaratne Mawatha, Nugegoda 39 11,150 156,000 41,000 194,950 234,221
Nuwara Eliya – No. 36, Buddha Jayanthi Mawatha, Nuwara Eliya 42 10,184 82,000 71,000 149,161 135,834
Panadura – No. 375, Galle Road, Panadura 12 6,168 30,750 40,090 66,833 35,236
Pettah – People’s Park Shopping Complex, Colombo 11 3,147 58,000 52,727 45,723
Pettah – Stores – People’s Park Shopping Complex, Colombo 11 225 4,800 4,364 3,521
Pettah – Main Street – No. 280, Main Street, Pettah, Colombo 11 20 22,760 280,000 152,010 423,522 238,670
Trincomalee – No. 474, Power House Road, Trincomalee 100 Bare Land 90,300 90,300 75,000
Union Place – No. 1, Union Place, Colombo 2 30 63,385 450,000 750,000 1,146,427 936,148
Wellawatte – No. 343, Galle Road, Colombo 6 45 48,560 249,520 421,700 664,021 235,222
Wennappuwa – Nos. 262, 264, Colombo Road, Wennappuwa 36 9,226 42,000 28,000 68,069 58,315
Total 4,797,273 2,912,283 7,528,893 5,634,136

39.5 (b) Information on Valuation of Freehold Land and Buildings of the Bank

[As required by the Rule No. 7.6 (viii) of the ‘Continuing Listing Requirements’ of the Colombo Stock Exchange and the SLFRS 13 – ‘Fair Value Measurement’].

Date of Valuation: December 31, 2014

Name of Professional Valuer/Location and Address of Property Method of Valuation and Significant Unobservable Inputs Range of Estimates for Unobservable Inputs Net Book Value before Revaluation of Revalued Amount of Revaluation Gain/(Loss) Recognised on
Land Buildings Land Buildings Land Buildings
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Mr. H.M.N. Herath
Chilaw
No. 44, Colombo Road,Chilaw
Market comparable method 61,750 64,791 63,522 38,000 1,772 (26,791)
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,800,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 4,250 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
5%
Gampaha
Queen Mary’s Road, Gampaha
Market comparable method 51,658 9,805 57,575 10,541 5,917 736
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,750,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,750 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
40%
Minuwangoda
No. 42, Siriwardena Mawatha, Minuwangoda
Market comparable method 37,500 34,155 31,250 17,690 (6,250) (16,465)
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,250,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 4,250 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
25%
Mr. K.C.B. Condegama
Maharagama
No. 154, High Level Road, Maharagama
Market comparable method 62,125 38,890 53,250 31,750 (8,875) (7,140)
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 3,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,750 p.sq.ft.
Nugegoda
No. 100, Stanley Thilakaratne Mawatha, Nugegoda
Market comparable method 195,000 39,221 156,000 41,000 (39,000) 1,779
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 4,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,800 p.sq.ft.
Wellawatte
No. 343, Galle Road, Colombo 6
Market comparable method 204,100 31,122 249,520 50,480 45,420 19,358
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 5,000,000 to Rs. 6,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,800 p.sq.ft.
Mr. P.B. Kalugalagedara
Keyzer Street
No. 32, Keyzer Street, Colombo 11
Market comparable method 45,000 23,128 56,000 26,000 11,000 2,872
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 7,500,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 500 to Rs. 6,000 p.sq.ft.
Kollupitiya No. 285, Galle Road, Colombo 3 Market comparable method 100,000 58,283 115,000 65,000 15,000 6,717
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 7,500,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 1,250 to Rs. 5,000 p.sq.ft.
Kotahena
198, George R. De Silva Mawatha, Kotahena, Colombo 13
Market comparable method 110,000 204,958 140,000 207,400 30,000 2,442
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 5,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 7,750 p.sq.ft.
Mutwal
No. 160, St. James Street, Colombo 15
Market comparable method 22,300 34,000 11,700
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 2,000,000 p.p.
Mr. R.S. Wijesuriya
Battaramulla
No. 213, Kaduwela Road, Battaramula
Market comparable method 24,518 55,348 52,500 87,375 27,982 32,027
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 3,750,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 7,500 p.sq.ft.
Battaramulla
No. 213, Kaduwela Road, Battaramulla
Market comparable method 52,399 50,000 (2,399)
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 3,750,000 p.p.
Panadura
No. 375, Galle Road, Panadura
Market comparable method 18,450 16,787 30,750 40,090 12,300 23,303
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 2,500,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 6,500 p.sq.ft.
Mr. S.A.S. Fernando
Galle City
No. 130, Main Street, Galle
Market comparable method 33,750 6,527 40,500 8,269 6,750 1,742
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 6,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 2,250 p.sq.ft.
Galle Fort
No. 22, Church Street, Fort, Galle
Market comparable method 100,000 46,256 210,000 40,000 110,000 (6,256)
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 2,100,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,440 p.sq.ft.
Hikkaduwa
No. 217, Galle Road, Hikkaduwa
Market comparable method 16,740 20,778 26,370 24,608 9,630 3,830
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 500,000 to Rs. 850,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 2,750 to Rs. 3,500 p.sq.ft.
Matara
No. 18, Station Road, Matara
Market comparable method 28,154 22,315 50,695 25,291 22,541 2,976
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 750,000 to Rs. 1,750,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 2,750 to Rs. 3,500 p.sq.ft.
Trincomalee
No. 474, Power House Road, Trincomalee
Market comparable method 75,000 90,300 15,300
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 900,000 p.p.
Mr. S.T. Sanmuganathan
Jaffna
No. 474, Hospital Road, Jaffna
Investment method 272,135 11,321 581,000 19,000 308,865 7,679
  • Gross Monthly Rental
Rs. 7,500,000 p.m.
  • Years purchase (Present value of 1 unit per period)
10
  • Void period
2 months p.a.
Mr. Sarath G. Fernando
Holiday Bungalow –Bandarawela Ambatenne Estate,
Bandarawela
Market comparable method 51,400 10,036 56,700 11,400 5,300 1,364
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 200,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,750 to Rs. 4,500 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
50%
Holiday Bungalow – Haputale
No. 23, Lilly Avenue, Welimada Road, Haputale
Market comparable method 25,700 13,013 30,900 15,300 5,200 2,287
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 150,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,250 to Rs. 6,500 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
20% to 55%
Kandy
No. 120, Kotugodella Veediya, Kandy
Market comparable method 342,000 207,953 354,000 231,000 12,000 23,047
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 8,500,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 5,750 to Rs. 9,500 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
30% & 35%
Kegalle
No.186, Main Street, Kegalle
Market comparable method 115,000 6,300 128,000 7,000 13,000 700
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,000,000 to Rs. 2,500,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 5,500 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
50%
Matale
No. 70, Kings Street, Matale
Market comparable method 60,000 57,358 75,000 60,000 15,000 2,642
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,500,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 8,750 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
20%
Nuwara-Eliya
No. 36/3, Buddha Jayanthi Mawatha, Nuwara-Eliya
Market comparable method 72,000 63,834 82,000 71,000 10,000 7,166
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,000,000 to Rs. 2,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 8,750 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
20%
Mr. Siri Nissanka
Borella
No. 92, D.S. Senanayake Mawatha, Colombo 08.
Market comparable method 70,335 55,996 156,300 198,700 85,965 142,704
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 10,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 11,000 p.sq.ft.
CEO’s Bungalow
No. 27, Queens Road, Colombo 03
Market comparable method 416,650 4,809 544,850 15,150 128,200 10,341
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 8,500,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 2,750 p.sq.ft.
Narahenpita
No. 201, Kirula Road, Narahenpita,Colombo 05
Market comparable method 99,225 63,714 132,300 87,700 33,075 23,986
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 6,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 7,850 p.sq.ft.
Pettah – Main Street
No. 280, Main Street, Pettah, Colombo 11
Market comparable method 169,370 69,299 280,000 69,299 110,630
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 14,000,000 p.p.
Union Place
No. 1, Union Place, Colombo 02
Market comparable method 360,000 576,148 450,000 750,000 90,000 173,852
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 15,000,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 12,000 p.sq.ft.
Mr. W.D.P. Rupananda
Ja-Ela
s No. 140, Negombo Road, Ja-Ela
Market comparable method 23,188 15,554 29,000 21,000 5,812 5,446
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 2,250,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,500 to Rs. 4,500 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
30%
Negombo
No. 24, 26, Fernando Avenue, Negombo
Market comparable method 49,500 24,440 73,000 31,000 23,500 6,560
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,500,000 to Rs. 2,200,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,500 to Rs. 4,250 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
25%
Pettah
People’s Park Shopping Complex, Colombo 11
Investment method 45,723 58,000 12,277
  • Gross monthly rental
Rs. 23,200 toRs. 160,000 p.m.
  • Years purchase (Present value of 1 unit per period)
18.18
  • Void period
4 months p.a.
PettahPeople’s Park Shopping Complex,
Colombo 11
Investment method 3,521 4,800 1,279
  • Gross monthly rental
Rs. 36,000 p.m.
  • Years purchase (Present value of 1 unit per period)
18.18
  • Void period
4 months p.a.
Wennappuwa
No. 262, 264, Colombo Road, Wennappuwa
Market comparable method 37,500 20,815 42,000 28,000 4,500 7,185
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,400,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,250 to Rs. 4,500 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
25%
Mr. W.S. Pemaratne
Galewela
No. 49/57, Matale Road, Galewela
Market comparable method 19,800 12,212 22,275 15,225 2,475 3,013
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 225,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 2,250 to Rs. 3,500 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
15%
Kurunegala
No. 4, Suratissa Mawatha, Kurunegala
Market comparable method 140,000 78,636 199,325 34,675 59,325 (43,961)
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 3,500,000 to Rs. 4,150,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,000 to Rs. 4,250 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
10%
Narammala
No. 55, Negombo Road, Narammala
Market comparable method 44,550 14,293 53,391 16,609 8,841 2,316
  • Price per perch for land
Rs. 1,300,000 p.p.
  • Price per square foot for building
Rs. 3,500 p.sq.ft.
  • Depreciation rate
5%
Total 3,606,797 2,027,339 4,797,273 2,458,352 1,190,476 431,013

p.p. – per perch p.sq.ft. – per square foot p.m. – per month

39.5 (c) Valuation Techniques and Sensitivity of the Fair Value Measurement of the Freehold Land and Buildings of the Bank

Description of the above valuation techniques together with narrative descriptions on sensitivity of the fair value measurement to changes in significant unobservable inputs are tabulated below:

Valuation Technique Significant unobservable valuation inputs (ranges of each property are given in the table above) Sensitivity of the fair value measurement to inputs
Market Comparable Method
This method considers the selling price of a similar property within a reasonably recent period of time in determining the fair value of the property being revalued. This involves evaluation of recent active market prices of similar assets, making appropriate adjustments for differences in size, nature, location, condition of specific property. In this process, outlier transactions, indicative of particularly motivated buyers or sellers are too compensated for since the price may not adequately reflect the fair market value.
Price per perch for land
Price per square foot for building
Depreciation rate for building
Estimated fair value would increase (decrease) if;
Price per perch would increase (decrease)
Price per square foot would increase (decrease)
Depreciation rate for building would decrease (increase)
Investment Method
This method involves the capitalisation of the expected rental income at an appropriate rate of years purchased currently characterised by the real estate market.
Gross Annual Rentals
Years purchase
(Present value of 1 unit per period) Void period
Estimated fair value would increase (decrease) if;
Gross Annual Rentals would increase (decrease) Years purchase would increase (decrease) Void period would decrease (increase)

39.6 Title Restriction on Property, Plant & Equipment

There were no restrictions existed on the title of the Property, Plant & Equipment of the Group as at the Reporting date.

39.7 Property, Plant & Equipment Pledged as Security for Liabilities – Bank

There were no items of Property, Plant & Equipment pledged as securities for liabilities as at the Reporting date.

39.8 Compensation from Third Parties for Items of Property, Plant & Equipment – Bank

The compensation received/receivable from third parties for items of Property, Plant & Equipment that were impaired, lost or given up as at the Reporting date of the Bank is as follows.

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Total claims lodged 4,832 1,702
Total claims received (1,643) (402)
Total claims rejected (643)
Total claims receivable 3,189 657

39.9 Fully Depreciated Property, Plant & Equipment – Bank

The cost of fully depreciated Property, Plant & Equipment of the Bank which are still in use is as follows:

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Computer equipment 1,205,702 1,823,142
Office equipment, furniture and fixtures 1,748,517 1,542,990
Motor vehicles 20,765 27,369

39.10 Temporarily Idle Property, Plant & Equipment – Bank

Following Property, Plant & Equipment of the Bank were temporarily idle (until the assets are issued to the business units).

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Computer equipment 128,136 349,244
Office equipment, furniture and fixtures 45,887 122,796

39.11 Property, Plant & Equipment Retired from Active Use – Bank

Following Property, Plant & Equipment of the Bank were retired from active use.

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Computer equipment 160,181 151,998
Office equipment, furniture and fixtures 100,681 73,991
Motor vehicles

39.12 Borrowing Costs

There were no capitalised borrowing costs related to the acquisition of Property, Plant & Equipment during the year 2016 (2015 – Nil).

40. Intangible Assets

The Group’s intangible assets include the value of acquired goodwill and computer software.

Basis of Recognition

An intangible asset is recognised if it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the asset will flow to the entity and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably in accordance with the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 38 on ‘Intangible Assets’.

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value as at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, these assets are stated in the Statement of Financial Position at cost, less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Subsequent Expenditure

Subsequent expenditure on intangible assets is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure is expensed as incurred.

Useful Economic Lives, Amortisation and Impairment

The useful economic lives of intangible assets are assessed to be either finite or indefinite. Useful economic lives, amortisation and impairment of finite and indefinite intangible assets are described below:

  • Intangible Assets with Finite Lives and Amortisation

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic lives. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at each Reporting date. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are accounted for by changing the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates, which require prospective application. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is expensed as incurred.

  • Goodwill

Goodwill that arises on the acquisition of Subsidiaries is presented with intangible assets (Refer Note 40 on page 277). Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the amount recognised for non-controlling interests, and any previous interest held, over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.

Subsequent to initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is, from the acquisition date, allocated to each of the Group’s cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the combination, irrespective of whether other assets or liabilities of the acquiree are assigned to those units.

  • Computer Software

Software acquired by the Group is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses.

Expenditure on internally developed software is recognised as an asset when the Group is able to demonstrate its intention and ability to complete the development and use the software in a manner that will generate future economic benefits, and can reliably measure the costs to complete the development. The capitalised costs of internally developed software include all costs directly attributable to developing the software and capitalised borrowing costs, and are amortised over its useful life. Internally developed software is stated at capitalised cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses.

Subsequent expenditure on software assets is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure is expensed as incurred.

  • Research and Development Costs

Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditures on an individual project are recognised as an intangible asset when the Group can demonstrate:

The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that the asset will be available for use or sale.

Its intention to complete and its ability to use or sell the asset.

The asset will generate future economic benefits.

The availability of resources to complete the asset.

The ability to measure reliably the expenditure during development.

The ability to use the intangible asset generated.

Following initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the asset is carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

As at the Reporting date, the Group does not have development costs capitalised as an internally-generated intangible asset.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Computer Software [Refer Note 40.1] 506,134 316,864 423,851 308,531
Software under development [Refer Note 40.2] 226,490 167,125 216,794 157,429
Goodwill arising on business combination 400,045 400,045
Total 1,132,669 884,034 640,645 465,960

40.1 Computer Software

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cost/Valuation
Balance as at January 01, 1,731,169 1,629,086 1,719,589 1,618,429
Additions during the year 362,810 99,407 280,986 98,414
Disposals/write-off during the year (413,059) (70) (413,059)
Exchange rate variance 1,757 2,754 1,785 2,754
Transfers/adjustments (8) (8)
Balance as at December 31, 1,682,677 1,731,169 1,589,301 1,719,589
Accumulated amortisation and impairment losses
Balance as at January 01, 1,414,305 1,231,442 1,411,058 1,229,333
Amortisation for the year [Refer Note 20] 173,790 180,558 165,903 179,370
Impairment loss
Disposals/write-off during the year (412,756) (50) (412,756)
Exchange rate variance 1,204 2,363 1,245 2,363
Transfers/adjustments (8) (8)
Balance as at December 31, 1,176,543 1,414,305 1,165,450 1,411,058
Net book value as at December 31, 506,134 316,864 423,851 308,531

40.2 Software Under Development

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cost/Valuation
Balance as at January 01, 167,125 58,541 157,429 50,032
Additions during the year 135,830 124,901 135,830 123,537
Exchange rate variance (177)
Transfers/adjustments (76,465) (16,140) (76,465) (16,140)
Balance as at December 31, 226,490 167,125 216,794 157,429

There were no restrictions on the title of the intangible assets of the Group as at the Reporting date. Further, there were no items pledged as securities for liabilities. There were no capitalised borrowing costs related to the acquisition of intangible assets during the year 2016 (2015 – Nil).

The maturity analysis of Intangible Assets is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

41. Leasehold Property

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cost/Valuation
Balance as at January 01, 128,700 128,700 84,840 84,840
Additions during the year
Balance as at December 31, 128,700 128,700 84,840 84,840
Accumulated amortisation
Balance as at January 01, 21,280 19,828 10,362 9,420
Amortisation for the year [Refer Note 20] 1,452 1,452 942 942
Balance as at December 31, 22,732 21,280 11,304 10,362
Net book value as at December 31, 105,968 107,420 73,536 74,478

The carrying amount of revalued assets that would have been included in the Financial Statements had the assets been carried at cost less depreciation/amortisation is as follows:

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 Cost Accumulated Amortisation Net Book Value Cost Accumulated Amortisation Net Book Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Class of Asset
Leasehold Land 23,715 6,827 16,888 14,846 3,783 11,063
Total 23,715 6,827 16,888 14,846 3,783 11,063
GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2015 Cost Accumulated Amortisation Net Book Value Cost Accumulated Amortisation Net Book Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Class of Asset
Leasehold Land 23,715 6,588 17,127 14,846 3,633 11,213
Total 23,715 6,588 17,127 14,846 3,633 11,213

The maturity analysis of Leasehold Property is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

42. Other Assets

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Receivables 36,511 11,290 36,511 11,290
Deposits and prepayments 1,481,830 1,426,519 1,490,786 1,434,714
Clearing account balance 6,370,312 4,811,743 6,370,312 4,811,743
Unamortised cost on staff loans (Day 1 difference) 3,373,174 2,696,643 3,373,174 2,696,643
Other accounts 5,220,732 3,150,822 5,167,383 3,140,201
Total 16,482,559 12,097,017 16,438,166 12,094,591

The maturity analysis of Other Assets is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

43. Due to Banks

These represent call money borrowings, credit balances in Nostro Accounts and borrowings from banks. Subsequent to initial recognition, these are measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Interest paid/payable on these borrowings is recognised in profit or loss.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Borrowings 58,406,994 30,975,857 54,917,414 29,505,580
Local currency borrowings 3,714,684 1,459,600 225,104
Foreign currency borrowings 54,692,310 29,516,257 54,692,310 29,505,580
Securities sold under repurchase (Repo) agreements (*) 12,691,397 813,539 12,691,397 813,539
Total 71,098,391 31,789,396 67,608,811 30,319,119

(*) Securities sold under repurchase (Repo) agreements are shown on the face of the Statement of Financial Position except for the Repos with banks.

The maturity analysis of Due to Banks is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

44. Derivative Financial Liabilities

Financial liabilities are classified as held-for-trading, if they are incurred principally for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term or held as a part of a portfolio that is managed together for short-term profit or position taking.

This category includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Group that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 39 on ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held-for-trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Derivative financial liabilities are recorded at fair value. Gains or losses on financial liabilities held-for-trading are recognised in the Income Statement.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Foreign currency derivatives
Currency swaps 663,714 791,199 663,714 791,199
Forward contracts 849,011 1,098,002 849,011 1,098,002
Spot contracts 2,310 1,569 2,310 1,569
Total 1,515,035 1,890,770 1,515,035 1,890,770

The maturity analysis of Derivative Financial Liabilities is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

45. Due to Other Customers/Deposits from Customers

These include non-interest-bearing deposits, savings deposits, term deposits, deposits payable at call and certificates of deposit. Subsequent to initial recognition deposits are measured at amortised cost using the EIR method, except where the Group designates liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Interest paid/payable on these deposits is recognised in profit or loss.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Local currency deposits 564,036,848 455,729,976 564,194,443 455,810,569
Current account balances 38,151,058 38,689,812 38,152,646 38,692,706
Savings deposits 197,136,502 196,605,341 197,244,642 196,631,547
Time deposits 328,382,343 219,882,652 328,430,210 219,934,145
Certificates of deposit 366,945 552,171 366,945 552,171
Foreign currency deposits 179,273,765 168,291,241 175,369,051 168,291,241
Current account balances 19,516,806 14,699,065 17,908,311 14,699,065
Savings deposits 56,388,046 60,128,349 54,845,666 60,128,349
Time deposits 103,368,913 93,463,827 102,615,074 93,463,827
Total 743,310,613 624,021,217 739,563,494 624,101,810

 

45.1 Analysis of Due to Other Customers/Deposits from Customers

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
(a) By product
Current account balances 57,667,864 53,388,877 56,060,957 53,391,771
Savings deposits 253,524,548 256,733,690 252,090,308 256,759,896
Time deposits 431,751,256 313,346,479 431,045,284 313,397,972
Certificates of deposit 366,945 552,171 366,945 552,171
Subtotal 743,310,613 624,021,217 739,563,494 624,101,810
 
(b) By currency
Sri Lankan Rupee 564,036,848 455,729,976 564,194,443 455,810,569
United States Dollar 119,220,744 112,704,677 115,932,892 112,704,677
Great Britain Pound 8,195,451 8,194,138 8,195,451 8,194,138
Euro 34,738,958 32,679,287 34,738,958 32,679,287
Australian Dollar 5,984,750 5,653,284 5,851,603 5,653,284
Bangladesh Taka 9,087,549 7,605,532 9,087,088 7,605,532
Other currencies 2,046,313 1,454,323 1,563,059 1,454,323
Subtotal 743,310,613 624,021,217 739,563,494 624,101,810
 
(c) By institution/customers
Deposits from banks 5,678,189 9,177,616 5,678,189 9,177,616
Deposits from finance companies 14,908,797 8,551,835 14,888,958 8,551,835
Deposits from other customers 722,723,627 606,291,766 718,996,347 606,372,359
Subtotal 743,310,613 624,021,217 739,563,494 624,101,810

The maturity analysis of due to other customers deposits from customers is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

46. Other Borrowings

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Refinance borrowings 5,425,666 4,434,582 5,425,666 4,434,582
Borrowings from International Finance Corporation (IFC) 3,844,488 5,551,055 3,844,488 5,551,055
Total 9,270,154 9,985,637 9,270,154 9,985,637

The maturity analysis of Other Borrowings is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

47. Current Tax Liabilities

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 3,025,662 2,037,388 3,001,984 1,997,990
Provision for the year 5,606,143 5,185,218 5,554,989 5,094,780
Under/(Over) provision of taxes in respect of prior years [Refer Note 22.1] 1,700 1,701
Self-assessment payments (4,014,741) (3,376,261) (3,966,831) (3,271,753)
Notional tax credits (*) (918,062) (900,495) (916,767) (899,563)
Withholding tax/other credits (291,257) (43,681) (289,576) (42,964)
Exchange rate variance 56,937 121,793 56,937 121,793
Balance as at December 31, 3,464,682 3,025,662 3,440,736 3,001,984

(*) Notional Tax Credit for Withholding Tax on Government Securities on Secondary Market Transactions

As per Section 137 of the Inland Revenue Act No. 10 of 2006 and amendments thereto, a company engaged in secondary market transactions involving Government Securities, Treasury Bills and Treasury Bonds on which Income Tax had been deducted at 10% per annum at the time of issue of such securities,is entitled to a notional tax credit of one-ninth of Net Interest Income earned from such secondary market transactions.

The maturity analysis of Current Tax Liabilities is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

48. Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

48.1 Summary of Net Deferred Tax Liability

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Temporary Difference Tax Effect Temporary Difference Tax Effect Temporary Difference Tax Effect Temporary Difference Tax Effect
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 1,815,596 467,632 10,435,226 2,876,199 969,263 230,615 9,355,102 2,573,760
Amount originating/(reversing) to Income Statement [Refer Note 22.1] 303,341 42,017 268,938 89,933 94,840 (16,317) 461,836 143,905
Amount originating/(reversing) to Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income (4,188,639) (1,172,819) (8,838,782) (2,474,859) (4,190,193) (1,173,254) (8,847,675) (2,477,349)
Deferred tax on re-classification of revaluation surplus to revaluation reserve (49,786) (13,940)
Exchange rate variance (4,980) (9,701) (4,979) (9,701)
Balance as at December 31, (2,069,702) (668,150) 1,815,596 467,632 (3,126,090) (963,935) 969,263 230,615

48.2 Reconciliation of Net Deferred Tax Liability – Group

Statement ofFinancial Position Income Statement Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income
For the year ended/as at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Deferred Tax Liabilities on:
Accelerated depreciation for tax purposes – Own assets 422,466 371,955 (50,511) 1,220
Accelerated depreciation for tax purposes – Leased assets 2,024,509 1,873,011 (151,498) (291,195)
Revaluation surplus on freehold buildings 726,052 746,234 20,182 20,183
Tax effect on actuarial gains on defined benefit plans 66,464 26,458 (40,006) (22,874)
Effective interest rate on deposits 1,986 2,585 599 813
Effect of exchange rate variance (5,888) (11,447) 908 1,746
3,241,477 3,020,243 (187,116) (280,426) (39,098) (21,128)
Deferred Tax Assets on:
Finance leases (203)
Defined benefit plans 386,144 332,194 53,950 51,154
Tax effect on actuarial losses on defined benefit plans 61,179 23,975 37,204 8,174
Unrealised (loss) on available-for-sale (AFS) portfolio 2,875,685 1,679,467 1,196,218 2,471,980
Specific provision on lease receivable 56,254 56,254
Leave encashment 179,216 168,232 10,984 7,242
Tax effect on actuarial losses on leave encashment 13,444 34,949 (21,505) 15,833
Straight lining of lease rentals 39,236 28,463 10,773 9,241
De-recognition of commission income 110,633 81,016 29,617 10,354 -
Equity-settled share-based payments 117,679 62,532 55,147 62,532
Impairment provision 62,672 85,529 (22,857) 50,173
Carried forward tax loss on leasing business 7,485 7,485
3,909,627 2,552,611 145,099 190,493 1,211,917 2,495,987
Deferred tax effect on Income Statement and Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income for the year (42,017) (89,933) 1,172,819 2,474,859
Net deferred tax liability as at December 31, (668,150) 467,632

48.3 Reconciliation of Net Deferred Tax Liability – Bank

Statement ofFinancial Position Income Statement Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income
For the year ended/as at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Deferred Tax Liabilities on:
Accelerated depreciation for tax purposes – Own assets 379,184 332,042 (47,142) (1,175)
Accelerated depreciation for tax purposes – Leased assets 1,926,686 1,816,321 (110,365) (290,797)
Revaluation surplus on freehold buildings 493,791 513,721 19,930 19,930
Tax effect on actuarial gains on defined benefit plans 63,016 23,301 (39,715) (20,242)
Effective interest rate on deposits 1,986 2,585 599 813
Effect of exchange rate variance (5,887) (11,447) 908 1,746
2,864,663 2,687,970 (142,865) (282,676) (38,807) (18,496)
Deferred Tax Assets on:
Defined benefit plans 375,497 322,835 52,662 49,402
Tax effect on actuarial losses on defined benefit plans 60,946 23,620 37,326 8,047
Unrealised (loss) on available-for-sale (AFS) portfolio 2,875,694 1,679,454 1,196,240 2,471,965
Specific provision on lease receivable 56,254 56,254
Leave encashment 179,216 168,232 10,984 7,242
Tax effect on actuarial losses on leave encashment 13,444 34,949 (21,505) 15,833
Straight lining of lease rentals 39,236 28,463 10,773 9,241
De-recognition of commission income 110,632 81,016 29,616 10,354
Equity-settled share-based payments 117,679 62,532 55,147 62,532
3,828,598 2,457,355 159,182 138,771 1,212,061 2,495,845
Deferred tax effect on Income Statement and Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income for the year 16,317 (143,905) 1,173,254 2,477,349
Net deferred tax liability as at December 31, (963,935) 230,615

The maturity analysis of Deferred Tax Liabilities is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

49. Other Provisions

A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognised in ‘Interest Expense’ in profit or loss.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Provision for claims payable 1,874 1,874 1,874 1,874
Total 1,874 1,874 1,874 1,874

The maturity analysis of Other Provisions is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

50. Other Liabilities

Other liabilities include provisions made on account of interest, fees and expenses, gratuity/pensions, leave encashment and other provisions. These liabilities are recorded at amounts expected to be payable as at the Reporting date.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Accrued expenditure 2,362,488 2,029,007 2,342,023 2,015,485
Cheques sent on clearing 6,358,679 4,811,743 6,358,679 4,811,743
Provision for gratuity payable [Refer Note 50.1 (b)] 1,010,095 886,648 983,180 863,230
Provision for unfunded pension scheme [Refer Note 50.2 (b)] 214,886 219,283 214,886 219,283
Provision for Leave Encashment [Refer Note 50.3 (b)] 688,073 725,647 688,073 725,647
Payable on oil hedging transactions 929,044 894,302 929,044 894,302
Other payables 6,465,637 6,182,554 6,194,509 6,018,469
Total 18,028,902 15,749,184 17,710,394 15,548,159

The maturity analysis of Other Liabilities is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

50.1 Provision for Gratuity Payable

An actuarial valuation of the retirement gratuity payable was carried out as at December 31, 2016 by Mr. M. Poopalanathan, AIA, of Messrs Actuarial & Management Consultants (Pvt) Ltd., a firm of professional Actuaries. The valuation method used by the actuaries to value the liability is the ‘Projected Unit Credit Method (PUC)’, the method recommended by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 19 on ‘Employee Benefits’.

50.1 (a) Actuarial Assumptions

Type of Assumption Criteria Description
Demographic Mortality – In service A 67/70 Mortality table issued by the Institute of Actuaries, London
Staff Turnover The staff turnover rate at an age represents the probability of an employee leaving within one year of that age due to reasons other than death, ill health and normal retirement. The same withdrawal rates which were used in the last valuation (as at December 31, 2015) to determine the liabilities of the active employees in the gratuity, were used in the actuarial valuation carried out as at December 31, 2016.
Normal retirement age The employees who are aged over the specified retirement age have been assumed to retire on their respective next birthdays.
Financial Rate of discount Sri Lankan operation In the absence of a deep market in long-term bonds in Sri Lanka, a long-term interest rate of 11.50% p.a. (2015 – 10.50% p.a.) has been used to discount future liabilities considering anticipated long-term rate of inflation.
Bangladesh operation In the absence of long term high quality corporate bonds or Government bonds with the term that matches liabilities a long-term interest rate of 8% p.a. (2015 – 9% p.a.) has been used to discount future liabilities considering anticipated long-term rate of inflation.
Salary increases Sri Lankan operation A salary increment of 10% p.a. (2015 – 10% p.a.) has been used in respect of the active employees. Bangladesh operation A salary increment of 10% p.a. (2015 – 10% p.a.) has been used in respect of the active employees.

50.1 (b) Movement in the Provision for Gratuity Payable

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 886,648 748,969 863,230 720,520
Expense recognised in the Income Statement [Refer Note 50.1 (c)] 211,237 178,347 204,791 171,451
Exchange rate variance 7,782 14,579 7,782 14,579
Amount paid during the year (39,701) (28,194) (38,230) (25,017)
Actuarial gain recognised in other comprehensive income (55,871) (27,053) (54,393) (18,303)
Balance as at December 31, 1,010,095 886,648 983,180 863,230

50.1 (c) Expense Recognised in the Income Statement – Gratuity

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest cost 91,149 73,745 88,801 70,160
Current service cost 120,088 104,602 115,990 101,291
Total 211,237 178,347 204,791 171,451

50.1 (d) Sensitivity Analysis on Actuarial Valuation

The following table illustrates the impact of the possible changes in the discount rate and salary increases in gratuity valuation of the Group and the Bank as at December 31, 2016.

Group Bank
Variable Sensitivity Effect on Statement of Financial Position (Benefit Obligation) Rs. ’000 Sensitivity Effect on Statement of Financial Position (Benefit Obligation) Rs. ’000
1% increase in discount rate (143,011) (141,480)
1% decrease in discount rate 158,313 156,576
1% increase in salary 163,072 161,297
1% decrease in salary (148,678) (147,090)

50.2 Provision for Unfunded Pension Scheme

An actuarial valuation of the unfunded pension liability was carried out as at December 31, 2016 by Mr. M. Poopalanathan, AIA, of Messrs Actuarial & Management Consultants (Pvt) Ltd., a firm of professional actuaries. The valuation method used by the actuaries to value the liability is the ‘Projected Unit Credit Method (PUC)’, the method recommended by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 19 on ‘Employee Benefits’.

50.2 (a) Actuarial Assumptions

Type of Assumption Criteria Description
Demographic Mortality – In service A 1967/70 Mortality table issued by the Institute of Actuaries, London.
After retirement A (90) Annuities table (Males and Females) issued by the Institute of Actuaries, London.
Staff turnover The withdrawal rate at an age represents the probability of an active employee leaving within one year of that age due to reasons other than death, ill health and normal retirement. The same withdrawal rates which were used in the last valuation (as at December 31, 2015) to determine the liabilities of the active employees in the funded scheme, were used in the actuarial valuation carried out as at December 31, 2016.
Disability Assumptions similar to those used in other comparable schemes for disability were used as the data required to do a ‘scheme specific’ study was not available.
Normal retirement age 55 or 60 years as indicated in the data file of active employees.
Financial Rate of discount In the absence of a deep market in long-term bonds in Sri Lanka, a long-term interest rate of 11.50% p.a. (2015 – 10.50% p.a.) has been used to discount future liabilities considering anticipated long-term rate of inflation.
Salary increases A salary increment of 10% p.a. (2015 – 10% p.a.) has been used in respect of the active employees.
Post-retirement pension increase rate There is no agreed rate of increase even though the pension payments are subject to periodic increases, and increases are granted solely at the discretion of the Bank. Therefore, no specific rate was assumed for this valuation.

50.2 (b) Movement in the Provision for Unfunded Pension Scheme

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 219,283 203,458 219,283 203,458
Expense recognised in the Income Statement [Refer Note 50.2 (c)] 23,025 19,329 23,025 19,329
Amount paid during the year (34,134) (32,245) (34,134) (32,245)
Actuarial loss recognised in other comprehensive income 6,712 28,741 6,712 28,741
Balance as at December 31, 214,886 219,283 214,886 219,283

50.2 (c) Expense Recognised in the Income Statement – Unfunded Pension Scheme

GROUP BANK
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest cost 23,025 19,329 23,025 19,329
Current service cost
Total 23,025 19,329 23,025 19,329

50.2 (d) Sensitivity Analysis on Actuarial Valuation – Unfunded Pension Scheme

The following table illustrates the impact of the possible changes in the discount rate and salary increases in the unfunded pension scheme valuation of the Bank as at December 31, 2016.

Group Bank
Variable Sensitivity Effect on Statement of Financial Position (Benefit Obligation)
Rs. ’000
Sensitivity Effect on Statement of Financial Position (Benefit Obligation)
Rs. ’000
1% increase in discount rate (8,196) (8,196)
1% decrease in discount rate 8,949 8,949
1% increase in salary
1% decrease in salary

50.3 Provision for Leave Encashment

An actuarial valuation of the leave encashment liability was carried out as at December 31, 2016 by Mr. M. Poopalanathan, AIA, of Messrs Actuarial & Management Consultants (Pvt) Ltd., a firm of professional actuaries. The valuation method used by the actuaries to value the liability is the ‘Projected Unit Credit Method (PUC)’, the method recommended by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 19 on ‘Employee Benefits’.

50.3 (a) Actuarial Assumptions

Type of Assumption Criteria Description
Demographic Mortality – In service A 1967/70 Mortality table issued by the Institute of Actuaries, London
Staff turnover The probability of a member withdrawing from the scheme within a year of ages between 20 to 55 years.
Disability The probability of a member becoming disabled within a year of ages between 20 to 55 years.
Financial Rate of discount In the absence of a deep market in long-term bonds in Sri Lanka, a long-term interest rate of 11.50% p.a. (2015 – 10.50% p.a.) has been used to discount future liabilities considering anticipated long-term rate of inflation.
Salary increases A salary increment of 10% p.a. (2015 – 10% p.a.) has been used in respect of the active employees.

50.3 (b) Movement in the Provision for Leave Encashment

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 725,647 643,238 725,647 643,238
Expense recognised in the Income Statement [Refer Note 50.3 (c)] 76,193 61,108 76,193 61,108
Amount paid during the year (36,965) (35,243) (36,965) (35,243)
Actuarial (gain)/loss recognised in other comprehensive income (76,802) 56,544 (76,802) 56,544
Balance as at December 31, 688,073 725,647 688,073 725,647

50.3 (c) Expense Recognised in the Income Statement – Leave Encashment

GROUP BANK
For the year ended 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest cost 76,193 61,108 76,193 61,108
Current service cost
Total 76,193 61,108 76,193 61,108

50.3 (d) Sensitivity Analysis on Actuarial Valuation – Leave Encashment

The following table illustrates the impact of the possible changes in the discount rates and salary increases on account of leave encashment liability of the Bank as at December 31, 2016.

Group Bank
Variable Sensitivity Effect on Statement of Financial Position (Benefit Obligation) Rs. ’000 Sensitivity Effect on Statement of Financial Position (Benefit Obligation) Rs. ’000
1% increase in discount rate (76,710) (76,710)
1% decrease in discount rate 93,149 93,149
1% increase in salary 96,842 96,842
1% decrease in salary (80,841) (80,841)

50.4 Employee Retirement Benefit

50.4.1 Pension Fund – Defined Benefit Plan

An actuarial valuation of the Retirement Pension Fund was carried out as at December 31, 2016 by Mr. M. Poopalanathan, AIA, of Messrs Actuarial and Management Consultants (Pvt) Ltd., a firm of professional actuaries. The valuation method used by the actuaries to value the fund is the ‘Projected Unit Credit Method (PUC)’, the method recommended by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 19 on ‘Employee Benefits’.

The assets of the fund, which are independently administered by the Trustees as per the provisions of the Trust Deed are held separately from those of the Bank.

50.4.1 (a) Actuarial Assumptions
Type of Assumption Criteria Description
Demographic Mortality – in service A 67/70 Mortality table issued by the Institute of Actuaries, London
After retirement A (90) Annuities table (Males & Females) issued by the Institute of Actuaries, London
Staff Turnover The withdrawal rate at an age represents the probability of an active employee leaving within one year of that age due to reasons other than death, ill health and normal retirement. The same withdrawal rates which were used in the last valuation (as at December 31, 2015) to determine the liability on account of the active employees in the funded scheme, were used in the actuarial valuation carried out as at December 31, 2016.
Disability Assumptions similar to those used in other comparable schemes for disability were used as the data required to do a ‘scheme specific’ study was not available.
Normal retirement age 55 or 60 years as indicated in the data file of active employees.
Financial Rate of discount In the absence of a deep market in long-term bonds in Sri Lanka, a long-term interest rate of 11.50% p.a. (2015 – 10.50% p.a.) has been used to discount future liabilities considering anticipated long-term rate of inflation.
Salary increases A salary increment of 10% p.a. (2015 – 10% p.a.) has been used in respect of the active employees.
Post-retirement pension increase rate There is no agreed rate of increase even though the pension payments are subject to periodic increases and increases are granted solely at the discretion of the Bank. Therefore, no specific rate was assumed for this valuation.
50.4.1 (b) Movement in the Present Value of Defined Benefit Obligation – Bank
2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 163,821 140,311
Interest cost 17,201 13,329
Current service cost 2,686 3,022
Benefits paid during the year (15,879) (12,169)
Actuarial (gain)/loss (6,996) 19,328
Balance as at December 31, 160,833 163,821
50.4.1 (c) Movement in the Fair Value of Plan Assets
2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Fair value as at January 01, 137,308 125,708
Expected return on plan assets 14,418 11,943
Contribution paid into plan 1,624 1,588
Benefits paid by the plan (15,879) (12,169)
Actuarial gain on plan assets 23,281 10,238
Fair value as at December 31, 160,752 137,308
50.4.1 (d) Liability Recognised in the Statement of Financial Position
2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Present value of defined benefit obligations as at January 01, 160,833 163,821
Fair value of plan assets (160,752) (137,308)
Net liability recognised under other liabilities 81 26,513
50.4.1 (e) Plan Assets Consist of the following
2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Deposits held with the Bank 160,752 137,308
Total 160,752 137,308

50.4.2 W&OP Fund – Defined Benefit Plan

An actuarial valuation of the Retirement Pension W&OP Fund was carried out as at December 31, 2016 by Mr. M. Poopalanathan, AIA, of Messrs Actuarial & Management Consultants (Pvt) Ltd., a firm of professional actuaries. The valuation method used by the actuaries to value the fund is the ‘Projected Unit Credit Method (PUC)’, the method recommended by the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 19 on ‘Employee Benefits’.

The assets of the fund, which are independently administered by the Trustees as per the provisions of the Trust Deed are held separately from those of the Bank.

50.4.2 (a) Actuarial Assumptions
Type of Assumption Criteria Description
Demographic Mortality – in service A 67/70 Mortality table issued by the Institute of Actuaries, London
After retirement A (90) Annuities table (Males & Females) issued by the Institute of Actuaries, London
Staff Turnover The withdrawal rate at an age represents the probability of an active employee leaving within one year of that age due to reasons other than death, ill health and normal retirement. The same withdrawal rates which were used in the last valuation (as at December 31, 2015) to determine the liability on account of the active employees in the funded scheme, were used in the actuarial valuation carried out as at December 31, 2016.
Disability Assumptions similar to those used in other comparable schemes for disability were used as the data required to do a ‘scheme specific’ study was not available.
Normal retirement age 55 or 60 years as indicated in the data file of active employees.
Financial Rate of discount In the absence of a deep market in long-term bonds in Sri Lanka, a long-term interest rate of 11.50% p.a. (2015 – 10.50% p.a.) has been used to discount future liabilities considering anticipated long-term rate of inflation.
Salary increases A salary increment of 10% p.a. (2015 – 10% p.a.) has been used in respect of the active employees.
Post-retirement pension increase rate There is no agreed rate of increase even though the pension payments are subject to periodic increases and increases are granted solely at the discretion of the Bank. Therefore, no specific rate was assumed for this valuation.
50.4.2 (b) Movement in the Present Value of Defined Benefit Obligation – Bank
2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 49,853 45,046
Interest cost 5,235 4,279
Current service cost 310 368
Benefits paid during the year (3,328) (3,124)
Actuarial (gain)/loss (3,651) 3,284
Balance as at December 31, 48,419 49,853
50.4.2 (c) Movement in the Fair Value of Plan Assets
2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Fair value as at January 01, 44,320 38,351
Expected return on plan assets 4,654 3,644
Contribution paid into plan 200 189
Benefits paid by the plan (3,328) (3,124)
Actuarial gain on plan assets 4,336 5,260
Fair value as at December 31, 50,182 44,320
50.4.2 (d) Liability Recognised in the Statement of Financial Position
2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Present value of defined benefit obligations as at January 01, 48,419 49,853
Fair value of plan assets (50,182) (44,320)
Net liability recognised under other liabilities (1,763) 5,533
50.4.2 (e) Plan Assets Consist of the following
2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Deposits held with the Bank 50,182 44,320
Total 50,182 44,320

50.4.3 Pension Fund – Defined Contribution Plan

During 2006, the Bank restructured its pension scheme which was a Defined Benefit Plan (DBP) to a Define Contribution Plan (DCP). This restructured plan was offered on a voluntary basis to the eligible employees of the Bank. The scheme provided for lump sum payments instead of commuted/monthly pension to the eligible employees at the point of their separation, in return for surrendering their pension rights. The lump sum offered consisted of a past service package and future service package. The cost to be incurred on account of the past service package in excess of the funds available in the pension fund was borne by the Bank in 2006.

The future service package includes monthly contributions to be made by the Bank for the employees who accepted the offer, to be made during their remaining period of service, at predetermined contribution rates to be applied on their salaries, estimated to increase for this purpose at 10% p.a. In addition, interest to be earned on the assets of the DCP is also allocated to the employees who joined the restructured scheme.

51. Due to Subsidiaries

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Local Subsidiaries
Commercial Development Company PLC 9,260 8,500
ONEzero Company Ltd. 10,801 17,712
Serendib Finance Ltd.
Subtotal 20,061 26,212
Foreign Subsidiaries
Commex Sri Lanka S.R.L. – Italy
Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited
Subtotal
Total 20,061 26,212

The maturity analysis of Due to Subsidiaries is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

52. Subordinated Liabilities

These represent the funds borrowed by the Group for long term funding requirements. Subsequent to initial recognition these are measured at their amortised cost using the EIR method, except where the Group designates them at fair value through profit or loss. Interest paid/payable is recognised in profit or loss.

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 11,798,910 11,098,910 11,783,910 10,883,910
Amount borrowed during the year (*) 13,179,430 13,179,430
Repayments/redemptions during the year (987,660) (200,000) (972,660)
Subtotal 23,990,680 10,898,910 23,990,680 10,883,910
Exchange rate variance 420,000 900,000 420,000 900,000
Balance as at December 31, (before adjusting for amortised interest and transaction cost) [Refer Note 52.1] 24,410,680 11,798,910 24,410,680 11,783,910
Unamortised transaction cost (75,805) (88,015) (75,805) (88,015)
Net effect of amortised interest payable 514,664 277,377 514,664 277,377
Adjusted balance as at December 31, 24,849,539 11,988,272 24,849,539 11,973,272

(*) Funds raised through the Debenture Issues have been utilised to finance expansion by increasing the lending portfolio of the Bank within 12 months from the Date of Allotment. Subordinated funds raised through the Debenture Issue are expected to further improve the Capital Adequacy of the Bank by increasing its Tier II Capital base thus strengthening its Total Eligible Capital.

Outstanding subordinated liabilities of the Bank as at December 31, 2016, consisted of 131,794,300 (2015 – 972,660) unsecured subordinated redeemable debentures of Rs. 100/- (2015 – Rs. 1,000/-) each and a subordinated loan of US $ 75.0 Mn. (2015 – US $ 75.0 Mn.) from International Finance Corporation (IFC).

52.1 Categories of Subordinated Liabilities

Categories Colombo Stock Exchange Listing Interest Payable Frequency Allotment Date Maturity Date Effective Annual Yield GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
% % Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Fixed Rate Debentures
2016/2021 – 10.75% p.a. Listed Bi-annually 09.03.2016 08.03.2021 11.04 4,430,340 4,430,340
2016/2021 – 12.00% p.a. Listed Bi-annually 28.10.2016 27.10.2021 12.36 5,071,800 5,071,800
2016/2026 – 11.25% p.a. Listed Bi-annually 09.03.2016 08.03.2026 11.57 1,749,090 1,749,090
2016/2026 – 12.25% p.a. Listed Bi-annually 28.10.2016 27.10.2026 12.63 1,928,200 1,928,200
2006/2016 – 13.25% p.a. Not Listed Annually 16.05.2006 16.05.2016 13.25 505,000 505,000
2006/2016 – 14.00% p.a. Listed Annually 18.12.2006 18.12.2016 14.00 467,260 467,260
Floating Rate Debentures
2006/2016 – 12 months TB rate (Gross) + 1% p.a. (*) Listed Annually 18.12.2006 18.12.2016 10.21 400 400
Floating Rate Subordinated Loans
IFC Borrowings – 6 months LIBOR + 5.75% Bi-annually 13.03.2013 14.03.2023 7.013 6.275 11,231,250 10,811,250 11,231,250 10,811,250
Subsidiaries
Fixed Rate Debentures
2011/2016 – 14.15% p.a. Not listed Monthly 25.08.2011 25.08.2016 15.10 10,000
2011/2016 – 14.15% p.a. Not listed Monthly 25.08.2011 25.08.2016 15.10 5,000
Total 24,410,680 11,798,910 24,410,680 11,783,910

(*) The 12 Months TB rate (Gross) – Twelve months Treasury Bill rate mentioned above is before deducting 10% Withholding Tax as published by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka immediately prior to the commencement of each interest period.

52.2 Subordinated Liabilities by Maturity

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Payable within one year 987,660 972,660
Payable after one year 24,410,680 10,811,250 24,410,680 10,811,250
Total 24,410,680 11,798,910 24,410,680 11,783,910

In the event of the winding-up of the issuer, the above liabilities would be subordinated to the claims of depositors and all other creditors of the issuer. The Bank has not had any defaults of principal, interest or other breaches with respect to its subordinated liabilities during the year ended December 31, 2016.

The maturity analysis of Subordinated Liabilities is given in Note 62 on pages 308 and 309.

53. Stated Capital

Ordinary shares in the Bank are recognised at the amount paid per ordinary share net of directly attributable issue cost.

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 23,254,605 21,457,501 23,254,605 21,457,501
Issue of ordinary voting shares under the Employee Share Option Plan 144,804 237,304 144,804 237,304
Issue of ordinary shares as part of the final dividend satisfied in the form of issue and allotment of new shares 1,578,594 1,559,800 1,578,594 1,559,800
Ordinary voting shares 1,477,179 1,459,666 1,477,179 1,459,666
Ordinary non-voting shares 101,415 100,134 101,415 100,134
Balance as at December 31, 24,978,003 23,254,605 24,978,003 23,254,605

53.1 Movement in Number of Shares

No. of Ordinary Voting Shares No. of Ordinary Non-Voting Shares
2016 2015 2016 2015
Balance as at January 01, 820,567,115 810,277,729 56,299,686 55,579,946
Issue of ordinary voting shares under the Employee Share Option Plan 1,136,732 2,170,613
Issue of ordinary shares as part of the final dividend satisfied in the form of issue and allotment of new shares 11,818,040 8,118,773 912,967 719,740
Balance as at December 31, 833,521,887 820,567,115 57,212,653 56,299,686

The shares of Commercial Bank of Ceylon PLC are quoted on the Colombo Stock Exchange. The non-voting ordinary shares of the Bank, rank pari passu in respect of all rights with the ordinary voting shares of the Bank except voting rights on Resolutions passed at General Meetings.

The holders of ordinary shares are entitled to receive dividends declared from time to time and are entitled to one vote per share at General Meetings of the Bank.

The Bank has offered an Employee Share Option Plan. Please refer Note 53.2 on page 297 for details.

53.2 Employee Share Option Plan – 2008

The Bank obtained the approval of the shareholders at an Extraordinary General Meeting held on April 16, 2008, to introduce an Employee Share Option Plan for the benefit of all the Executive Officers in Grade III and above by creating up to 3% of the ordinary voting shares at the rate of 1% shares each year over a period of three to five years, upon the Bank achieving specified performance targets.

Option price is determined on the basis of the weighted average market price of Bank’s voting shares, during the period of ten market days immediately prior to each option offer date.

Number of options offered under each tranche is based on the overall performance of the Bank and the individual performance of the eligible employees in the preceding year. In the event of a rights issue of shares, capitalisation of reserves, stock splits or stock dividends by the Bank during the vesting period, the number of options offered and the price are suitably adjusted as per the applicable rules of ESOP – 2008 which have been drafted in line with the accepted market practices.

1/3 of the options offered under each tranche is vested to eligible employees after one year from the date of offer, second 1/3 of the options after two years from the date of offer and final 1/3 after three years from the date of offer as detailed below:

Tranche I Total
Date granted April 30, 2008 April 30, 2008 April 30, 2008
Price (Rs.) – (*) 46.91 46.91 46.91
1/3 of Options 1/3 of Options 1/3 of Options
Exercisable between April 30, 2009 to April 29, 2013 April 30, 2010 to April 29, 2014 April 30, 2011 to April 29, 2015
Original number of options 777,308 777,308 777,308 2,331,924
Additions consequent to share splits and rights issues 692,095 789,320 1,057,059 2,538,474
Number of options cancelled before vesting (52,943) (52,943) (52,943) (158,829)
Number of options vested 1,416,460 1,513,685 1,781,424 4,711,569
Options cancelled due to non-acceptance
Number of options exercised up to December 31, 2016 (1,416,460) (1,513,685) (1,781,424) (4,711,569)
Number of options to be exercised as at December 31, 2016

(*) Adjusted on account of the dividends declared in the form of issue and allotment of new shares, rights issue of shares and sub-division of shares.

Tranche II Total
Date granted April 30, 2011 April 30, 2011 April 30, 2011
Price (Rs.) 132.23 132.23 132.23
1/3 of Options 1/3 of Options 1/3 of Options
Exercisable between April 30, 2012 to April 29, 2016 April 30, 2013 to April 29, 2017 April 30, 2014 to April 29, 2018
Original number of options 1,213,370 1,213,386 1,213,399 3,640,155
Additions consequent to share splits and rights issues 1,213,370 1,213,386 1,213,399 3,640,155
Number of options cancelled before vesting (30,980) (41,307) (95,236) (167,523)
Number of options vested 2,395,760 2,385,465 2,331,562 7,112,787
Options cancelled due to non-acceptance (1,337,809) (1,337,809)
Number of options exercised up to December 31, 2016 (1,057,951) (661,204) (371,669) (2,090,824)
Number of options to be exercised as at December 31, 2016 1,724,261 1,959,893 3,684,154
Tranche III Total
Date granted April 30, 2012 April 30, 2012 April 30, 2012
Price (Rs.) 104.63 104.63 104.63
1/3 of Options 1/3 of Options 1/3 of Options
Exercisable between April 30, 2013 to April 29, 2017 April 30, 2014 to April 29, 2018 April 30, 2015 to April 29, 2019
Original number of options 2,596,557 2,596,624 2,596,663 7,789,844
Number of options cancelled before vesting (49,706) (79,964) (129,670)
Number of options vested 2,596,557 2,546,918 2,516,699 7,660,174
Number of options exercised up to December 31, 2016 (1,687,979) (1,235,341) (855,973) (3,779,293)
Number of options to be exercised as at December 31, 2016 908,578 1,311,577 1,660,726 3,880,881

The Employee Share Option Plan – 2008 was exempted from the requirements of the SLFRS 2 on ‘Share-based Payment’ as it was granted prior to January 01, 2012, the effective date of the aforesaid accounting standard.

The details of Employee Share Option Plans within the scope of the SLFRS 2 on ‘Share-based Payment’ are reported in Note 54 to the Financial Statements below:

54. Share-Based Payment

54.1 Description of the Share-Based Payment Arrangement

As at the Reporting date, the Group had the following equity settled share-based payment arrangement which was granted after January 01, 2012, the effective date of the Accounting Standard SLFRS 2 on ‘Share-based Payment’.

Employee Share Option Plan – 2015

The Bank obtained the approval of the shareholders at an Extraordinary General Meeting held on March 31, 2015, to introduce an Employee Share Option Plan for the benefit of all executive officers in Grade 1A and above by creating up to 2% of the ordinary voting shares at the rate of 0.5% shares in the first two years and 1% shares in the last year over a period of three to five years, upon the Bank achieving specified performance targets. The performance conditions include minimum performance targets over the budget and over the industry peers and the service conditions include the fulfilment of the minimum service period as at the dates of vesting of each tranche.

Key terms and conditions related to the offer are detailed below:

Tranches
Tranche 1 Tranche 2 Tranche 3
% of Voting Shares Issued (Maximum) 0.5 0.5 1.0
Option Grant Date April 1, 2015 April 1, 2015 April 1, 2015
Exercisable between October 01, 2016 to September 30, 2019 October 01, 2017 to September 30, 2020 October 01, 2018 to September 30, 2021
Date of Vesting September 30, 2016 September 30, 2017 September 30, 2018
Vesting Conditions 1½ years of service from the grant date and the fulfilment of performance conditions stated above for the Financial Year 2015 2½ years of service from the grant date and the fulfilment of performance conditions stated above for the Financial Year 2016 3½ years of service from the grant date and the fulfilment of performance conditions stated above for the Financial Year 2017
No. of options vested on the date of vesting
Key Management Personal 81,869
Option granted to senior employees 4,073,989
Total options vested on the date of vesting 4,155,858

All options are to be settled by physical delivery of ordinary voting shares of the Bank. There are neither cash settlement alternatives nor the Bank has a past practice of cash settlement for these types of options.

The exercise price of each tranche is computed based on a volume-weighted average market price of the Bank’s ordinary (voting)shares, during the period of thirty (30) market days, on six months prior to the date of vesting.

54.2 Measurement of Fair Value

As required by SLFRS 2 on ‘Share-based Payment’, the fair value of the ESOP 2015 was estimated at the grant date using the Binomial Valuation Model taking into consideration various terms and conditions upon which the share options are granted.

The inputs used in measurement of fair value at the grant date of ESOP 2015 were as follows:

Tranches
Description of the Valuation Input Tranche 1 Tranche 2 Tranche 3
Expected dividend rate (%) 3.50 3.50 3.50
Risk free rate (%) 8.00 8.00 8.00
Probability of share price increase (%) 80.00 80.00 80.00
Probability of share price decrease (%) 20.00 20.00 20.00
Size of annual increase of share price (%) 20.00 20.00 20.00
Size of annual reduction in share price (%) 10.00 10.00 10.00
Exercise price (Rs.) 206.90 227.54 250.24

Growths in share prices stated above have been based on evaluation of the historical volatility of the Bank’s share price over past 10 years, adjusted for post-war growth in All Share Price Index published by the Colombo Stock Exchange.

54.3 Reconciliation of Outstanding Share Options

The number and weighted-average exercise prices of share options are as follows:

2016 2015
No. of options WAEP* No. of options WAEP*
No. of voting shares vested and to be vested as at January 01, 16,351,837 212.20 233.59
Granted during the year - 16,351,837
Exercised during the year (242,245) 122.73
No. of voting shares vested and to be vested as at December 31, 16,109,592 213.55 16,351,837 233.59
No. of options to be exercised as at December 31, 3,913,613 122.73

*Weighted Average Exercise Price

54.4 Expense Recognised in Income Statement

The cumulative expense recognised for equity-settled transactions at each Reporting date until the vesting date, reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Group’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. Accordingly, the expense in the Income Statement represents the movement in cumulative expense recognised as at the beginning and end of that period and is recognised in employee benefits expense [Refer Note 19].

55. Statutory Reserves

Statutory reserves are maintained by the Group in order to meet legal requirements. The details of these reserves including the nature and purpose of maintaining them are given in Note 55.1 below:

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Statutory reserve fund [Refer Note 55.1] 5,647,993 4,922,367 5,647,890 4,922,264
Subtotal 5,647,993 4,922,367 5,647,890 4,922,264

55.1 Statutory Reserve Fund

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 4,922,367 4,327,103 4,922,264 4,327,103
Transfers during the year 725,626 595,264 725,626 595,161
Balance as at December 31, 5,647,993 4,922,367 5,647,890 4,922,264

The statutory reserve fund is maintained as per the requirements under Section 20 (1) of the Banking Act No. 30 of 1988. Accordingly, the fund is built up by allocating a sum equivalent to not less than 5% of the profit after tax, but before declaring any dividend or any profits that are transferred elsewhere until the reserve is equal to 50% of the Bank’s stated capital and thereafter a further sum equivalent to 2% of such profit until the amount of the said reserve fund is equal to the stated capital of the Bank.

The balance in the statutory reserve fund will be used only for the purposes specified in the Section 20 (2) of the Banking Act No. 30 of 1988.

56. Retained Earnings

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 4,467,807 4,418,412 4,388,867 4,258,287
Super Gain Tax for the year of assessment 2013/14 (*) (2,608,469) (2,576,355)
Balance as at January 01, (Adjusted) 4,467,807 1,809,943 4,388,867 1,681,932
Total comprehensive income 14,654,924 11,783,842 14,652,274 11,834,510
Profit for the year 14,510,333 11,855,172 14,512,511 11,903,224
Other comprehensive income, net of tax 144,591 (71,330) 139,763 (68,714)
Dividends paid (5,720,913) (5,647,414) (5,720,913) (5,647,414)
Write back of dividend payable 624
Derecognition of revaluation reserve 5,628
Transfers to other reserves (8,856,151) (3,480,264) (8,856,151) (3,480,161)
Profit on sale of partial disposal of subsidiary 3,047 2,344
Reinstatement of non-controlling interest due to partial disposal of subsidiary (1,188) (644)
Balance as at December 31, 4,553,778 4,467,807 4,464,077 4,388,867

(*) As per the amendments to provisions of the Finance Act from the Government Interim Budget Proposals for 2015, the Group and the Bank were liable for Super Gain Tax (SGT) amounting to Rs. 2,609 Mn. and Rs.2,576 Mn. respectively. According to the Act, the SGT shall be deemed to be an expenditure in the Financial Statements relating to the year of assessment commenced on April 01, 2013. Since the Act supersedes the requirements of the Sri Lanka Accounting Standards, The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Sri Lanka recommended the accounting treatment on SGT by issuing the Statement of Alternative Treatment (SoAT) dated November 24, 2015 and SGT has been recorded in the Financial Statements accordingly.

57. Other Reserves

57. (a) Current Year – 2016

GROUP BANK
Balance as at January 01, Movement/ Transfers Balance as at December 31, Balance as at January 01, Movement/ Transfers Balance as at December 31,
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Revaluation reserve [Refer Note 57.1] 6,258,939 (8,385) 6,250,554 5,722,859 5,722,859
General reserve [Refer Note 57.2] 35,359,478 8,130,525 43,490,003 35,359,478 8,130,525 43,490,003
Available-for-sale reserve [Refer Note 57.3] (3,955,376) (3,253,429) (7,208,805) (3,955,367) (3,253,429) (7,208,796)
Foreign currency translation reserve [Refer Note 57.4] 432,489 428,013 860,502 424,768 414,578 839,346
Employee share option reserve [Refer Note 57.5] 223,330 196,952 420,282 223,330 196,952 420,282
Total 38,318,860 5,493,676 43,812,536 37,775,068 5,488,626 43,263,694

57. (b) Previous Year – 2015

GROUP BANK
Balance as at January 01, Movement/ Transfers Balance as at December 31, Balance as at January 01, Movement/ Transfers Balance as at December 31,
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Revaluation reserve [Refer Note 57.1] 6,246,960 11,979 6,258,939 5,722,859 5,722,859
General reserve [Refer Note 57.2] 32,474,478 2,885,000 35,359,478 32,474,478 2,885,000 35,359,478
Available-for-sale reserve [Refer Note 57.3] 2,735,569 (6,690,945) (3,955,376) 2,735,578 (6,690,945) (3,955,367)
Foreign currency translation reserve [Refer Note 57.4] (454,188) 886,677 432,489 (464,076) 888,844 424,768
Employee share option reserve [Refer Note 57.5] 223,330 223,330 223,330 223,330
Total 41,002,819 (2,683,959) 38,318,860 40,468,839 (2,693,771) 37,775,068

57.1 Revaluation Reserve

The revaluation reserve relates to revaluation of freehold land and buildings and represents the fair value changes of the land and buildings as at the date of revaluation.

The Bank carried out a revaluation of all its freehold lands and buildings as at December 31, 2014 and recognised Rs. 1,621.489 Mn., as revaluation surplus.

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 6,258,939 6,246,960 5,722,859 5,722,859
Derecognition of revaluation reserve to the retained earnings (5,628)
Reinstatement of deferred tax on revaluation gains 13,710
Movement due to changes in equity (2,757) (1,731)
Balance as at December 31, 6,250,554 6,258,939 5,722,859 5,722,859

57.2 General Reserve

The Bank transfers the surplus profit, after payment of interim dividend and after retaining sufficient profits to pay final dividends proposed, from the retained earnings account to the General Reserve account. The purpose of setting up the General Reserve is to meet potential future unknown liabilities.

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 35,359,478 32,474,478 35,359,478 32,474,478
Transfers during the year 8,130,525 2,885,000 8,130,525 2,885,000
Balance as at December 31, 43,490,003 35,359,478 43,490,003 35,359,478

57.3 Available-for-Sale Reserve

The available-for-sale reserve comprises the cumulative net change in fair value of financial investments available-for-sale until such investments are derecognised or impaired.

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, (3,955,376) 2,735,569 (3,955,367) 2,735,578
Net fair value gains/(losses) on remeasuring financial investments available-for-sale (3,253,429) (6,690,945) (3,253,429) (6,690,945)
Balance as at December 31, (7,208,805) (3,955,376) (7,208,796) (3,955,367)

57.4 Foreign Currency Translation Reserve

The foreign currency translation reserve comprises all foreign currency differences arising from the translation of the Financial Statements of foreign operations.

As at the Reporting date, the assets and liabilities of the Bank’s Bangladesh Operation, Commex – Sri Lanka S.R.L. Italy and Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited., subsidiaries of the Bank were translated into the presentation currency (Sri Lankan Rupee) at the exchange rate ruling as at the Reporting date and the Statement of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income was translated at the average exchange rate for the period. The exchange differences arising on the translation of these Financial Statements are taken to foreign currency translation reserve through other comprehensive income.

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 432,489 (454,188) 424,768 (464,076)
Net unrealised gains/(losses) arising from translating the Financial Statements of foreign operations 438,565 886,677 414,578 888,844
Foreign currency translation reserve attributable to non-controlling interest (10,552)
Balance as at December 31, 860,502 432,489 839,346 424,768

57.5 Employee Share Option Reserve

The employee share option reserve is used to recognise the value of equity-settled share-based payments to be provided to employees, including Key Management Personnel, as part of their remuneration.

GROUP BANK
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 223,330 223,330
Transfers during the year [Refer Note 19] 206,174 223,330 206,174 223,330
Transfers to stated capital (9,222) (9,222)
Balance as at December 31, 420,282 223,330 420,282 223,330

58. Non-Controlling Interest

Non-Controlling Interest (NCI) are measured at their proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets at the date of acquisition. Changes in the Group’s interest in a subsidiary that do not result in a loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions. Accordingly, the Bank has Non-controlling interest of two subsidiaries namely, Commercial Development Company PLC. (NCI of 6.15%) and Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited (NCI of 45%) as at the Reporting date as follows.

2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Balance as at January 01, 50,208 47,564
Super Gain Tax for the year of assessment 2013/2014 (1,503)
Profit for the year (43,909) 4,088
Other comprehensive income, net of tax 10,594 369
Dividends paid for the year (3,432) (3,270)
Reinstatement of deferred tax on revaluation gains 585
Write back of dividend payable 38
Reinstatement of non-controlling interest due to partial disposal of subsidiary 3,945 2,375
Incorporation of a subsidiary with Non-Controlling Interest 805,669
Balance as at December 31, 823,113 50,208

59. Contingent Liabilities and Commitments

Contingent liabilities are possible obligations whose existence will be confirmed only by uncertain future events or present obligations where the transfer of economic benefit is not probable or cannot be readily measured as defined in the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 37 on ‘Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets’.

To meet the financial needs of customers, the Bank enters into various irrevocable commitments and contingent liabilities. These consist of financial guarantees, letters of credit and other undrawn commitments to lend. Letters of credit and guarantees commit the Bank to make payments on behalf of customers in the event of a specific act, generally related to the import or export of goods. Guarantees and standby letters of credit carry a similar credit risk to loans.

Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the Statement of Financial Position but are disclosed unless its occurrence is remote.

Operating lease commitments of the Group (as a lessor and as a lessee) form part of commitments and pending legal claims against the Group form part of contingencies.

Even though, these obligations may not be recognised on the Statement of Financial Position, they do contain credit risk and are therefore part of the overall risk of the Bank as disclosed in Note 59.1 on page 305.

In the normal course of business, the Bank makes various irrevocable commitments and incurs certain contingent liabilities with legal recourse to its customers. Even though these obligations may not be recognised on the date of the Statement of Financial Position, they do contain credit risk and therefore form part of the overall risk profile of the Bank.

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Contingencies 365,862,605 365,874,611 365,853,920 365,874,611
Guarantees 33,267,170 31,504,779 33,258,485 31,504,779
Performance bonds 22,553,060 14,095,269 22,553,060 14,095,269
Documentary credits 36,222,394 30,161,623 36,222,394 30,161,623
Other contingencies [Refer Note 59.1] 273,819,981 290,112,940 273,819,981 290,112,940
Commitments 132,705,895 155,357,709 132,450,607 155,357,709
Undrawn commitments [Refer Note 59.2] 131,628,622 153,979,986 131,381,356 153,979,986
Capital commitments [Refer Note 59.3] 1,077,273 1,377,723 1,069,251 1,377,723
Total 498,568,500 521,232,320 498,304,527 521,232,320

59.1 Other Contingencies

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Forward exchange contracts: 70,646,854 77,647,330 70,646,854 77,647,330
Forward exchange sales 26,084,323 44,293,601 26,084,323 44,293,601
Forward exchange purchases 44,562,531 33,353,729 44,562,531 33,353,729
Interest Rate Swap agreements/Currency Swaps: 158,012,034 168,466,179 158,012,034 168,466,179
Interest rate swaps
Currency swaps 158,012,034 168,466,179 158,012,034 168,466,179
Others: 45,161,093 43,999,431 45,161,093 43,999,431
Acceptances 25,281,037 25,708,732 25,281,037 25,708,732
Bills for collection 19,260,765 17,533,095 19,260,765 17,533,095
Stock of Travellers’ Cheques 616,341 586,893 616,341 586,893
Bullion on consignment 2,950 170,711 2,950 170,711
Subtotal 273,819,981 290,112,940 273,819,981 290,112,940

59.2 Undrawn Commitments

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
On direct advances 97,459,750 109,755,816 97,212,484 109,755,816
On indirect advances 34,168,872 44,224,170 34,168,872 44,224,170
Subtotal 131,628,622 153,979,986 131,381,356 153,979,986

59.3 Capital Commitments

The Group has commitments for acquisition of Property, Plant & Equipment and intangible assets incidental to the ordinary course of business which have been approved by the Board of Directors, the details of which are as follows:

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Commitments in relation to property, plant & equipment 647,677 964,469 647,677 964,469
Approved and contracted for 511,667 725,069 511,667 725,069
Approved but not contracted for 136,010 239,400 136,010 239,400
Commitments in relation to intangible assets 429,596 413,254 421,574 413,254
Approved and contracted for 429,596 413,254 421,574 413,254
Approved but not contracted for
Subtotal 1,077,273 1,377,723 1,069,251 1,377,723

59.4 Contingent Liabilities and Commitments of Subsidiaries and Associates

59.4 (a) Contingent Liabilities and Commitments of Subsidiaries

Contingent liabilities and commitments of the subsidiary, Commercial Bank of Maldives Private Limited have been included in the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Group while other subsidiaries of the Group do not have any contingencies or commitments as at the Reporting date.

59.4 (b) Contingent Liabilities and Commitments of Associates

The Associates of the Group do not have any contingencies as at the Reporting date.

60. Net Assets Value Per Ordinary Share

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Amounts used as the Numerator:
Total equity attributable to equity holders of the Bank (Rs. ’000) 78,992,310 70,963,639 78,353,664 70,340,804
Number of ordinary shares used as the denominator:
Total number of shares 890,734,540 876,866,801 890,734,540 876,866,801
Net assets value per share (Rs.) 88.68 80.93 87.97 80.22

61. Litigation Against the Bank

Litigation is a common occurrence in the banking industry due to the nature of the business. The Bank has an established protocol for dealing with such legal claims. In respect of pending legal claims where the Bank had already made provisions for possible losses in its Financial Statements or has a realisable security to cover the damages are not included below as the Bank does not expect cash outflows from such claims. However, further adjustments are made to Financial Statements if necessary on the adverse effects of legal claims based on the professional advice obtained on the certainty of the outcome and also based on a reasonable estimate.

Set out below are the unresolved legal claims against the Bank as at December 31, 2016 for which, adjustments to the Financial Statements have not been made due to the uncertainty of its outcome. In addition, there are cases filed against the Bank that have not been listed here on the basis of non-materiality to operations and aggrieved party had obtained injunctions prior to acquiring the property by the Bank.

  1. (i) Court action has been initiated by a customer in High Court Civil Case No. 236/2011/MR challenging the Bank for transferring a vehicle in the name of a relation of the customer, upon settlement of a lease facility obtained from the Bank. The Bank has executed the transfer on the strength of a letter issued by the Plaintiff who is now challenging the letter. The value of the action is Rs. 3.500 Mn. Plaintiff has closed his case. Evidence by the 1st defendant has been completed. Bank as the 2nd defendant is scheduled to submit evidences on July 06, 2017.
  2. (ii) Court action has been initiated by a customer in proceeding number 25831/MR to claim a sum of Rs. 2.880 Mn. including the refund of interest of an overdraft facility. The judgment was entered against the Bank in the District Court for Rs.1.874 Mn. The Bank has appealed (Appeal No. 133/2010) to the Supreme Court. Arguments have been concluded. Bank has complied with written submissions. Date for the judgment is yet to be fixed.
  3. (iii) Court action has been initiated by the plaintiff in the Commercial High Court of the Western Province case No. 571/2008/MR to prevent the Bank from exercising the inherent rights of the Bank to set off a deposit of the plaintiff amounting to US$ 15.000 Mn. against a sum due from the plaintiff in terms of a hedging agreement. Commercial High Court issued the judgment in favour of the Bank and dismissed plaintiff’s application for an interim injunction. Presently the case is at the trial stage. Further trial fixed for July 12, 2017.
  4. (iv) Court action has been initiated by a customer for Rs. 14.000 Mn. in District Court, Colombo proceeding No. DMR 3/2014 to recover a sum of Rs. 13.063 Mn. including interest on cheques paid with a fraudulent signature. The case which was initially filed at the District Court was later referred to the Commercial High Court under case No. 315/2018/MR. Trial fixed for March 20, 2017.
  5. (v) Court action has been initiated in proceedings No. 03034/14/MR to claim a sum of Rs. 27.870 Mn. being the total amount withdrawn from the Company account with forged signatures by an employee by forging authorised customer’s signatures in a number of transactions during a period of two years. Further trial fixed for June 14, 2017.
  6. (vi) Court action has been initiated in proceedings No. DMR/974/2016 to recover a sum of Rs. 26.237 Mn. together with interest as damages incurred by the plaintiff due to the delay by the Bank in refunding the amount with regard to a duplicated telegraphic transfer for USD 25,000/-. Answer filed by the Bank and next trial is fixed for June 28, 2017.
  7. (vii) An appeal was filed by the Bank under proceedings number HCALT 405/2014 in Provincial High Court of the Eastern Province against the order of the Labour Tribunal for payment of compensation and re-instatement in employment of an outsourced office helper. The office helper too filed a case in Provincial High Court in proceedings number HCALT 404/2014 refusing compensation and asking for reinstatement. Appeal made by the Bank was dismissed and the case filed by outsourced office helper was decided in favour of him. Bank appealed in the Supreme Court against the judgment of both cases under proceeding number SC/SPL/LA/220/15 and SC/SPL/LA/221/15. Next hearing of the cases is fixed for April 07, 2017.
  8. (viii) Court action has been initiated in proceeding No. 139/2016/MR to recover a sum of Rs. 29.000 Mn. together with interest and Rs. 10.000 Mn. as damages for holding a balance in a fixed deposit as lien against loans which plaintiff claims to be fraudulently created. Final answer due on March 22, 2017.
  9. (ix) Court action has been initiated for Rs. 15.000 Mn. and interest thereon in proceedings No. 584/L seeking declaration that the plaintiff is the lawful owner of the property mortgaged by her daughter as a security for a loan obtained from the Bank. The estimated loan loss to the Bank is Rs. 15.000 Mn. together with interest thereon. Answer due on March 03, 2017.
  10. (x) Court action has been initiated by a third party in Colombo High Court in proceedings No. 112/2005(1) to claim Rs. 5.584 Mn. plus Rs. 10.000 Mn. as damages for disposing of the shares owned by the plaintiff which were held under lien to the Bank. Plaintiff alleges that the transaction has taken place without obtaining her consent. Judgment was delivered in favour of the plaintiff. Bank has appealed to the Supreme Court (Appeal No. 09/2010) against the judgment delivered. The plaintiff has filed an application for the issue of Writ Pending Appeal. Bank had agreed to issue a guarantee for Rs. 5.000 Mn. in favour of the plaintiff, to be claimed only on the final determination of the appeal by the Supreme Court. Appeal is refixed for argument on June 16, 2017.
  11. (xi) Court action has been initiated by a customer in Colombo High Court Case No. 36/96 (1) to claim a sum of Rs. 183.050 Mn. regarding a forward exchange contract. Judgment was delivered in favour of the Bank dismissing the plaintiff’s action, but the plaintiff has appealed against the judgment in the Supreme Court (Appeal No. 38/2006). The appeal is fixed for argument on March 8, 2017.
  12. (xii) Court action has been initiated by a customer in proceedings No. 52/10 to claim a sum of Bangladeshi Taka 35.328 Mn. (approx. Rs. 67.3546 Mn.) from the Bank for illegal withdrawal of money from their account by issuing cheques with forged signatures. The Bank refuses the claim of the customer as the Bank is of the view that it had acted in good faith, without negligence and also that the Bank is not responsible for any losses incurred due to inadequacy of control measures taken by the customer on cheques issued by the Bank. Last hearing was on January 2, 2017. Next date is yet to be fixed.

62. Maturity Analysis

Group

(i) Remaining contractual period to maturity as at the date of Statement of Financial Position of the assets employed by the Group is detailed below:

As at December 31, Up to 3 Months 3 to 12 Months 1 to 3 Years 3 to 5 Years More than 5 Years Total as at 31.12.2016 Total as at 31.12.2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest earning assets:
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 8,291,413 8,291,413 1,662,487
Balances with central banks 405,258 155,411 560,669 5,706,807
Placements with banks 11,718,499 11,718,499 17,193,539
Securities purchased under resale agreements 8,002,100
Derivative financial assets
Other financial instruments Held-for-trading 4,693,989 4,693,989 7,330,086
Loans and receivables to banks
Loans and receivables to other customers 233,537,753 112,043,420 149,228,993 78,486,820 46,832,502 620,129,488 509,923,128
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 4,371,101 41,490,429 90,256,125 23,524,588 159,642,243 203,987,506
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 4,075,831 2,825,241 16,573,313 7,052,121 33,100,092 63,626,598
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 11,083,470 20,931,204 14,674,102 5,135,250 51,824,026 57,724,369
Total interest earning assets as at 31.12.2016 278,177,314 177,445,705 270,732,533 114,198,779 79,932,594 920,486,925
Total interest earning assets as at 31.12.2015 235,817,412 127,160,285 239,546,087 118,850,520 90,155,718 811,530,022
Non-interest earning assets:
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 24,632,814 24,632,814 18,444,589
Balances with central banks 27,356,043 13,558,656 858,703 809,680 791,507 43,374,589 22,514,210
Placements with banks
Securities purchased under resale agreements
Derivative financial assets 393,762 508,226 150,841 1,052,829 4,118,169
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 293,809 293,809 326,263
Loans and receivables to banks 624,458 624,458 601,106
Loans and receivables to other customers
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 156,460 17,954 275,865 450,279 274,428
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity
Financial investments – Loans and receivables
Non-Financial assets
Investments in subsidiaries
Investments in associates 108,859 108,859 104,503
Property, plant & equipment 11,569,666 11,569,666 11,181,433
Intangible assets 1,132,669 1,132,669 884,034
Leasehold property 105,968 105,968 107,420
Deferred tax assets (494,346) 360,404 1,119,681 (273,441) (44,148) 668,150
Other assets 12,023,299 189,154 1,072,981 437,781 2,759,344 16,482,559 12,097,017
Total non-interest earning assets as at 31.12.2016 64,361,841 14,616,440 3,826,664 991,974 16,699,730 100,496,649
Total non-interest earning assets as at 31.12.2015 44,931,050 7,583,819 2,176,751 789,092 15,172,460 70,653,172
Total assets – as at 31.12.2016 342,539,155 192,062,145 274,559,197 115,190,753 96,632,324 1,020,983,574
Total assets – as at 31.12.2015 280,748,462 134,744,104 241,722,838 119,639,612 105,328,178 882,183,194
Percentage – as at 31.12.2016(*) 33.56 18.81 26.89 11.28 9.46 100.00
Percentage – as at 31.12.2015(*) 31.83 15.27 27.40 13.56 11.94 100.00

(*)Total percentage of each maturity bucket out of total assets employed by the Group.

(ii) Remaining contractual period to maturity as at the date of Statement of Financial Position of the liabilities and shareholders’ funds employed by the Group is detailed below:

Up to 3 Months 3 to 12 Months 1 to 3 Years 3 to 5 Years More than 5 Years Total as at 31.12.2016 Total as at 31.12.2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest-bearing liabilities:
Financial liabilities
Due to banks 42,777,902 9,731,320 13,144,180 1,359,566 67,012,968 27,959,634
Derivative financial liabilities
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 54,636,347 14,981,595 11,019 69,628,961 112,249,703
Other financial liabilities – Held-for-trading
Due to other customers/Deposits from customers 407,935,082 237,562,576 16,790,103 11,505,418 11,916,085 685,709,264 571,086,630
Other borrowings 614,168 1,934,456 2,881,210 777,775 3,062,545 9,270,154 9,985,637
Subordinated liabilities 207,796 311,731 9,500,724 14,829,288 24,849,539 11,988,272
Total interest-bearing liabilities as at 31.12.2016 506,171,295 264,521,678 32,826,512 23,143,483 29,807,918 856,470,886
Total interest-bearing liabilities as at 31.12.2015 477,186,693 202,932,413 18,920,235 9,315,851 24,914,684 733,269,876
Non-interest-bearing liabilities:
Financial liabilities
Due to banks 4,085,423 4,085,423 3,829,762
Derivative financial liabilities 748,553 534,112 232,370 1,515,035 1,890,770
Securities sold under repurchase agreements
Other financial liabilities Held-for-trading
Due to other customers/deposits from customers 57,601,349 57,601,349 52,934,587
Other borrowings
Non-financial liabilities
Current tax liabilities 1,100,850 2,363,832 3,464,682 3,025,662
Deferred tax liabilities 467,632
Other provisions 1,874 1,874 1,874
Other liabilities 15,089,253 160,651 1,294,868 309,278 1,174,852 18,028,902 15,749,184
Equity
Stated capital 24,978,003 24,978,003 23,254,605
Statutory reserves 5,647,993 5,647,993 4,922,367
Retained earnings 4,553,778 4,553,778 4,467,807
Other reserves 43,812,536 43,812,536 38,318,860
Non-controlling interest 823,113 823,113 50,208
Total non-interest-bearing liabilities as at 31.12.2016 78,625,428 3,058,595 1,529,112 309,278 80,990,275 164,512,688
Total non-interest-bearing liabilities as at 31.12.2015 71,403,959 3,990,597 1,432,057 770,986 71,315,719 148,913,318
Total liabilities and equity – as at 31.12.2016 584,796,723 267,580,273 34,355,624 23,452,761 110,798,193 1,020,983,574
Total liabilities and equity – as at 31.12.2015 548,590,652 206,923,010 20,352,292 10,086,837 96,230,403 882,183,194
Percentage – as at 31.12.2016(*) 57.28 26.21 3.36 2.30 10.85 100.00
Percentage – as at 31.12.2015(*) 62.18 23.46 2.31 1.14 10.91 100.00

(*) Total liabilities and shareholders’ funds of each maturity bucket as a percentage of total liabilities and shareholders’ funds employed by the Group.

Bank

Maturity analysis of the assets and liabilities of the Bank is given in Note 69.2.2 on ‘Financial Risk Review’ on pages 338 to 342.

63. Operating Segments

An operating segment is a component of the Group that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses, including revenues and expenses that relate to transactions with any of the Group’s other components, whose operating results are reviewed regularly by the Corporate Management Team headed by the Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer (being the chief operating decision-maker) to make decisions about resources allocated to each segment and assess its performance, and for which discrete financial information is available.

The Group has five strategic divisions which are reportable segments, namely:

Operating Segment Types of Products and Services Offered
Personal Banking Refer pages 82 to 101 for details on product portfolio by ‘Key Business Lines Review’
Corporate Banking
International Operations
Investment Banking
Dealing and Treasury

Segment performance is evaluated based on operating profits or losses which, in certain respects, are measured differently from operating profits or losses in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Income taxes are managed on a Group basis and are not allocated to operating segments.

The following table presents the income, profit, asset and liability information on the Group’s strategic business divisions for the year ended December 31, 2016 and comparative figures for the year ended December 31, 2015.

Personal Banking Corporate Banking International Operations Investment Banking Dealing/Treasury Total/Consolidated
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
External operating income:
Net interest income 22,882,865 21,229,112 6,162,515 6,038,268 3,214,891 3,035,880 992,038 591,019 (124,033) (326,929) 33,128,276 30,567,350
Foreign exchange profit 198,679 84,085 822,894 1,270,664 509,081 518,116 795,504 1,004,405 2,326,158 2,877,270
Net fee and commission income 4,867,603 3,317,748 1,594,813 1,543,735 609,430 524,103 13,350 20,600 3,981 4,124 7,089,177 5,410,310
Other income 779,594 1,381,067 353,668 161,456 190,003 62,360 8,984 40,296 64,252 575,242 1,396,501 2,220,421
Eliminations/ unallocated 458,138 458,489
Total operating income 28,728,741 26,012,012 8,933,890 9,014,123 4,523,405 4,140,459 1,014,372 651,915 739,704 1,256,842 44,398,250 41,533,840
Credit loss expenses 202,442 (3,266,263) (1,726,375) (478,732) (59,393) (354,743) (1,583,326) (4,099,738)
Net operating income 28,931,183 22,745,749 7,207,515 8,535,391 4,464,012 3,785,716 1,014,372 651,915 739,704 1,256,842 42,814,924 37,434,102
Segment result 11,436,038 8,591,633 4,874,706 5,166,707 3,148,044 2,544,328 599,677 345,419 49,665 474,386 20,108,130 17,122,473
Profit from operations 20,108,130 17,122,473
Share of profit of associates – net of tax 6,454 13,638
Income tax expense (5,648,160) (5,276,851)
Non-controlling interest 43,909 (4,088)
Net profit for the year, attributable to Equity holders of the parent 14,510,333 11,855,172

 

 

Personal Banking Corporate Banking International Operations Investment Banking Dealing/Treasury Total/Consolidated
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Other information
Segment assets 348,163,433 279,706,505 229,759,156 193,881,080 112,387,766 93,138,952 12,335,263 13,406,914 257,143,130 261,627,206 959,788,748 841,760,657
Investment in associates 108,859 104,503 108,859 104,503
Unallocated assets 61,085,967 40,318,034
Total assets 348,163,433 279,706,505 229,759,156 193,881,080 112,387,766 93,138,952 12,444,122 13,511,417 257,143,130 261,627,206 1,020,983,574 882,183,194
Segment liabilities 601,064,166 496,764,815 145,104,008 90,064,347 86,181,038 90,399,530 12,444,122 13,511,417 92,910,135 116,935,944 937,703,469 807,676,053
Unallocated liabilities 3,464,682 3,493,294
Total liabilities 601,064,166 496,764,815 145,104,008 90,064,347 86,181,038 90,399,530 12,444,122 13,511,417 92,910,135 116,935,944 941,168,151 811,169,347

 

 

Personal Banking Corporate Banking International Operations Investment Banking Dealing/Treasury Total/Consolidated
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Information on cash flows
Cash flows from operating activities 48,260,328 5,511,885 (20,442,140) (4,636,226) (491,909) (2,818,494) (40,710) (235,112) (21,391,095) 10,396,929 5,894,474 8,218,982
Cash flows from investing activities 1,124,546 (2,596,130) 1,124,546 (2,596,130)
Cash flows from financing activities 11,969,421 (641,079) (1,075,713) (368,699) 10,893,708 (1,009,778)
Capital expenditure
Property, plant & equipment (1,468,902) (1,066,028)
Intangible assets (422,175) (208,168)
Eliminations/unallocated (3,204,500) (3,853,580)
Net cash flow generated during the year 12,817,151 (514,702)

64. Related Party Disclosures

The Bank carried out transactions in the ordinary course of business on an arm’s length basis at commercial rates with parties who are defined as Related Parties as per the Sri Lanka Accounting Standard – LKAS 24 – ‘Related Party Disclosures’.

However, transactions that the Key Management Personnel (KMP) have availed under schemes uniformly applicable to all staff are at concessionary rates.

64.1 Parent and Ultimate Controlling Party

The Bank does not have an identifiable parent of its own.

64.2 Key Management Personnel (KMP)

KMP are those persons having authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the entity directly or indirectly.

KMP of the Bank

The Board of Directors of the Bank has been classified as KMP of the Bank.

KMP of the Group

As the Bank is the ultimate parent of the Subsidiaries listed out on page 191, the Board of Directors of the Bank has the authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the Group directly or indirectly. Accordingly, the Board of Directors of the Bank is also KMP of the Group. Therefore, officers who are only Directors of the subsidiaries and not of the Bank have been classified as KMP only for that respective subsidiary.

64.2.1 Transactions with KMP

64.2.1.1 Compensation of KMP – Bank
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Short-term employment benefits 124,478 119,089
Post-employment benefits 6,984 6,384
Total 131,462 125,473
64.2.1.2 Compensation of KMP – Group
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Short-term employment benefits 125,648 119,909
Post-employment benefits 6,984 6,384
Total 132,632 126,293

In addition to the above, the Bank/Group provide non-cash benefits to the KMP.

64.2.2 Transactions, Arrangements and Agreements Involving KMP and their Close Family Members (CFM)

CFM of a KMP are those family members who may be expected to influence, or be influenced by, that KMP in their dealings with the entity. They may include KMP’s domestic partner and children, children of the KMP domestic partner and dependants of the KMP or the KMP domestic partner. CFM are related parties to the Group/Bank.

64.2.2.1 Statement of Financial Position – Bank
Year end Balance Average Balance
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Assets
Loans and advances 10,229 7,800 9,462 7,777
Credit cards 238 144
Total 10,229 7,800 9,700 7,921
 
Liabilities
Deposits 145,701 28,686 79,474 49,565
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 35,062 26,790 31,198 23,732
Debentures 2,000 355
Total 182,763 55,476 111,027 73,297
64.2.2.2 Commitments and Contingencies – Bank
Year end Balance Average Balance
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Undrawn facilities 10,380 9,195 11,716 9,184
Total 10,380 9,195 11,716 9,184
64.2.2.3 Direct and Indirect Accommodation – Bank
Year-end Balance
As at December 31, 2016 2015
% %
Direct and indirect accommodation as a % of the Bank’s Regulatory Capital 0.02 0.02

No impairment losses have been recorded against balances outstanding with KMP and CFM.

64.2.2.4 Income Statement
For the Year Ended December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income 626 433
Interest expense 7,747 3,228
Other income 20 226
Compensation to KMP [Refer Notes 64.2.1.1 & 64.2.1.2] 131,462 125,473
64.2.2.5 Share-Based Transactions of KMP and CFM
As at the year end 2016 2015
Number of ordinary shares held 810,939 694,883
Dividends paid (in Rs. ’000) 4,762 3,674
Number of cumulative exercisable options under the Employee Share Option Plan (ESOP) 2008
Tranche II 98,678 148,016
Tranche III 155,603 155,603
Number of cumulative exercisable options under the Employee Share Option Plan (ESOP) 2015
Tranche I 81,869

64.2.3 Transactions, Arrangements and Agreements involving Entities which are Controlled, and/or Significantly Influenced by the KMP or their CFM

64.2.3.1 Statement of Financial Position
Year end Balance Average Balance
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Assets
Loans and advances 266,349 80,967
Total 266,349 80,967
 
Liabilities
Deposits 977,122 276,411
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 126,237 426
Debentures 24,310 4,317
Total 1,127,669 281,154
64.2.3.2 Commitments and Contingencies
Year end Balance Average Balance
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Guarantees 71,280 71,280
Undrawn facilities 379,266 279,891
Total 450,546 351,171
64.2.3.3 Direct and Indirect Accommodation
Year end Balance
2016 2015
% %
Direct and indirect accommodation as a % of the Bank’s Regulatory Capital 0.69 0.00
64.2.3.4 Income Statement
For the year ended December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income 10,451
Interest expense 9,916
Other income

64.3 Transactions with Group Entities

The Group entities include the Subsidiaries and the Associates of the Bank.

64.3.1 Transactions with Subsidiaries

64.3.1.1 Statement of Financial Position
Year end Balance Average Balance
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Assets
Loans and advances 786,000 859,356 564,749 588,616
Lease receivables 465
Other receivables 92,857 90,596 91,727 88,141
Impairment for other receivables (55,684) (53,423) (54,554) (52,410)
Total 823,173 896,529 601,922 624,812
 
Liabilities
Deposits 178,827 80,593 108,269 100,251
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 238,508 135,109 145,944 136,559
Other 20,061 26,212 23,137 22,750
Total 437,396 241,914 277,350 259,560
64.3.1.2 Commitments and Contingencies
Year end Balance Average Balance
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Letters of Credit 1,126 1,126
Undrawn facilities 62,565 126,349 113,165 81,333
Total 62,565 126,349 114,291 82,459
64.3.1.3 Direct and Indirect Accommodation
Year end Balance
2016 2015
% %
Direct and indirect accommodation as a % of the Bank’s Regulatory Capital 0.86 1.28
64.3.1.4 Income Statement
For the Year Ended December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income 58,002 45,842
Interest expense 26,731 60,384
Other income 103,569 84,997
Impairment charges 3,306 2,025
Expenses 454,126 427,106
64.3.1.5 Other Transactions
For the Year Ended December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Payments made to OneZero Company Ltd. in relation to purchase of computer hardware and software 8,253 70,618

64.3.2 Transactions with Associates

64.3.2.1 Statement of Financial Position
Year end Balance Average Balance
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Assets
Loans and advances 29 88
Lease receivables 20
Total 29 108
 
Liabilities
Deposits 48,606 23,733 38,967 23,427
Total 48,606 23,733 38,967 23,427
64.3.2.2 Direct and Indirect Accommodation
Year end Balance
2016 2015
% %
Direct and indirect accommodation as a % of the Bank’s Regulatory Capital 0.00 0.00
64.3.2.3 Income Statement
For the year ended Decmber 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income 7 23
Interest expense 3,310 616
Other income 22,698 22,577
64.3.2.4 Other Transactions
For the year ended Decmber 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Number of Ordinary shares of the Bank held by the associates as at the year end 4,605 4,536
Dividend paid (Rs. ’000) 29 25

64.4 Transactions with Other Related Entities

Other related entities include significant investors (either entities or individuals) that have control, joint control or significant influence, post-employment benefit plans for the Bank’s employees.

64.4.1 Transactions with the Post-Employment Benefit Plans for the Employees of the Bank

64.4.1.1 Statement of Financial Position
Year end Balance Average Balance
2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Liabilities
Deposits 12,681,135 4,029,010 7,615,681 2,984,576
Securities sold under repurchase agreements 386,447 5,060,229 293,317 1,863,801
Total 13,067,582 9,089,239 7,908,998 4,848,377
64.4.1.2 Income Statement
During the year 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Interest income 30
Interest expense 821,179 431,322
Contribution made/taxes paid by the Bank 1,007,451 947,416

65. Non-Cash Items Included in Profit Before Tax

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Depreciation of property, plant & equipment 1,093,088 1,024,162 1,022,648 961,492
Amortisation of leasehold property 1,452 1,452 942 942
Amortisation of intangible assets 173,790 180,558 165,903 179,370
Impairment losses on loans and advances 1,583,326 4,099,738 1,511,158 3,904,948
Other impairment 18,656 38,248
Contributions to defined benefit plans – Unfunded schemes 234,262 197,676 227,816 190,780
Provision made o/a of leave encashment 76,193 61,108 76,193 61,108
Equity-settled share-based payments 206,174 223,330 206,174 223,330
Unamortised interest payable o/a subordinated liabilities 12,210 12,210 12,210 12,210
Mark to market on other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 129,562 119,283 129,562 119,283
Loss on intangible assets written off 303 303
Effect of exchange rate variances on investment in subsidiaries (30,136)
Effect of exchange rate variances on property, plant & equipment (2,024) (6,060) (2,012) (6,362)
Effect of exchange rate variances on intangible assets (553) (214) (540) (391)
Effect of exchange rate variances on defined benefit plans 7,782 14,579 7,782 14,579
Effect of exchange rate variances on subordinated liabilities 420,000 900,000 420,000 900,000
Net effect of exchange rate variances on net deferred tax liability (4,980) (9,701) (4,979) (9,701)
Net effect of exchange rate variances on income tax liability 56,937 121,793 56,937 121,793
Grossed up notional tax and withholding tax credits (1,209,319) (944,176) (1,206,343) (942,527)
Total 2,778,203 5,995,738 2,612,274 5,769,102

66. Change in Operating Assets

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Net (increase)/decrease in derivative financial instruments 3,065,340 (3,658,659) 3,065,340 (3,658,659)
Net (increase)/decrease in balances with Central Banks (15,714,241) (8,587,271) (15,652,188) (8,587,271)
Net (increase)/decrease in placements with banks 5,475,040 (2,685,678) 5,475,040 (2,685,678)
Net (increase)/decrease in securities purchased under resale agreements 8,002,100 33,196,166 8,002,100 33,196,166
Net (increase)/decrease in other financial assets held-for-trading 2,556,114 (1,460,608) 2,556,114 (1,460,608)
Net (increase)/decrease in loans and receivables to banks (23,352) (50,040) (23,352) (50,040)
Net (increase)/decrease in loans and receivables to customers (111,789,686) (107,491,777) (109,414,259) (106,588,618)
Net (increase)/decrease in Financial investments – Available-for-sale 39,672,872 400,472 39,724,256 401,485
Net (increase)/decrease in Financial investments – Held-to-maturity (63,626,598) (60,981,298)
Net (increase)/decrease in financial investments – Loans and receivables 4,815,666 (4,271,016) 4,815,666 (4,271,016)
Net (increase)/decrease in other assets (4,385,542) (1,536,587) (4,346,881) (1,554,799)
Total (131,952,287) (96,144,998) (126,779,462) (95,259,038)

67. Change in Operating Liabilities

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Net increase/(decrease) in due to banks 39,308,995 6,120,371 37,289,692 5,058,143
Net increase/(decrease) in derivative financial instruments (375,735) 697,631 (375,735) 697,631
Net increase/(decrease) in securities sold under repurchase agreements (42,620,742) (12,141,339) (42,517,343) (12,179,687)
Net increase/(decrease) in deposits from customers 119,289,396 94,754,629 115,461,684 94,740,326
Net increase/(decrease) in other borrowings (715,483) (1,650,946) (715,483) (1,650,946)
Net increase/(decrease) in other liabilities 2,236,019 (2,163,940) 2,122,523 (2,143,433)
Net increase/(decrease) in due to subsidiaries (6,151) 6,923
Total 117,122,450 85,616,406 111,259,187 84,528,957

68. Operating Leases

68.1 Operating Lease Commitments (Payables)

A number of branches and office premises occupied by the Group are under operating leases. These leases have an average life of three to six years. Lease agreements include clauses to enable upward revision of the rental payments on a periodic basis to reflect market conditions. There are no restrictions placed upon the Group by entering into these leases.

Future minimum rentals payable under non-cancellable operating leases are as follows:

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Less than one year 731,251 740,366 707,066 736,784
Between one to five years 1,771,460 1,901,675 1,762,161 1,897,436
Over five years 941,892 848,690 927,007 848,690
Total 3,444,603 3,490,731 3,396,234 3,482,910

68.2 Operating Lease Commitments (Receivables)

The Group has entered into operating leases to rent its own properties (mainly consisting of areas not currently occupied by the branches). Lease agreements include clauses to enable upward revision of rental income on a periodic basis to reflect market conditions. These leases have an average life of three to five years. There are no restrictions placed upon the Group by entering into these leases.

Future minimum rentals receivable under non-cancellable operating leases are as follows:

GROUP BANK
As at December 31, 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Less than one year 6,042 5,190 3,218 4,290
Between one to five years 12,167 3,320 3,469 2,825
Over five years
Total 18,209 8,510 6,687 7,115

69. Financial Risk Review

This note presents information about the Bank’s exposure to financial risks and the Bank’s management of capital.

For Information on the Bank’s Financial Risk Management Framework Page No.
Introduction
69.1 Credit Risk 322
69.1.1 Credit quality analysis 323
69.1.2 Impaired loans and receivables and investment debt securities 331
69.1.3 Collateral held 332
69.1.4 Concentrations of credit risk 332
69.1.5 Exposures to unrated countries 336
69.2 Liquidity Risk 337
69.2.1 Exposure to liquidity risk 337
69.2.2 Maturity analysis of financial assets and financial liabilities 338
69.2.3 Liquidity reserves 342
69.2.4 Financial assets available to support future funding 343
69.3 Market Risk 344
69.3.1 Exposure to market risk – Trading and non-trading portfolios 344
69.3.2 Exposure to interest rate risk – Sensitivity analysis 346
69.3.3 Exposure to currency risks – Non-trading portfolio 349
69.3.4 Exposure to equity price risk 350
69.4 Operational Risk 350
69.5 Capital Management 351
69.5.1 Regulatory capital 351
69.5.2 Capital allocation 352

Introduction

As a financial intermediary, the Bank is exposed to various types of risks including credit, market, liquidity and operational risks which are inherent in the Bank’s activities. Managing these risks is critical for the sustainability of the Bank and plays a pivotal role in all activities of the Bank. Risk Management function strives to identify potential risks in advance, analyse them and take precautionary steps to mitigate the impact of risk whilst optimising risk-adjusted returns within the risk appetite of the Bank.

Risk Management Framework

The overall responsibility and oversight of the Risk Management Framework of the Bank is vested with the Board of Directors (BOD). The Board Integrated Risk Management Committee (BIRMC), a mandatory Subcommittee set up by the Board, in turn is entrusted with the development of the Bank’s Risk Management Policies and monitoring of due compliance of same through the Executive Integrated Risk Management Committee (EIRMC).

The Risk Management Policies spell out the risk appetite of the Bank and have incorporated risk exposure limits and controls to monitor adherence to the limits in force. These Policies and systems are reviewed regularly to reflect the changing market conditions and the products and services offered.

The Bank strives to inculcate a Risk Management Culture through continuous training, work ethics and standards.

Refer Note 3 on pages 196 to 199 for more information on the Risk Management Framework of the Bank.

Integrated Risk Management Department (IRMD)

Business Units are the Risk Owners and have the primary responsibility for Risk Management. The IRMD acts as the second line of defence in managing the risk. The IRMD through Chief Risk Officer reports to the BIRMC thus ensuring its independence.

Risk Measurement and Reporting

The Bank uses robust risk measurement techniques based on the type of risk and industry best practices. The Bank also carries out Stress Testing which is a key aspect of the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP) and the Risk Management Framework and provides an insight on the impact of extreme, but plausible scenarios on the Bank’s risk profile. The results are reported to the EIRMC and to the BIRMC on a periodic basis.

The Bank establishes policies, limits and thresholds within the risk appetite. These limits reflect the business strategy and market environment of the Bank as well as the level of risk that the Bank is willing to accept (risk appetite). The monitoring and control mechanism therefore, is based on risk appetite of the Bank.

69.1 Credit Risk

The financial loss resulting from a borrower or counterparty to a financial instrument failing or delaying to meet its contractual obligations is referred to as credit risk. It arises principally from the loans and receivables to banks and other customers and investments in debt securities. In addition to the credit risk from direct funding exposure i.e., On-Balance Sheet exposure, indirect liabilities such as Letters of Credit, Guarantees etc. also would expose the Bank to credit risk.

The Bank considers and consolidates all elements of credit risk exposure (such as individual obligor default risk, country and sector concentration risks) to ensure stringent Credit Risk Management.

69.1.1 Credit Quality Analysis

69.1.1 (a) Maximum Exposure to Credit Risk by Risk Rating

The table below sets out information about the maximum exposure to credit risk (including Off-Balance Sheet exposure) broken down by risk ratings and the related provision for impairment made by the Bank against those assets:

As at December 31, Notes Loans and Receivables to Other Customers Loans and Receivables to Banks Financial Investments Lending Commitments and Contingencies
2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Maximum Exposure to Credit Risk
Carrying amount 31 - 36 616,018,228 508,115,127 624,458 601,106 277,816,593 269,625,007
Amount committed/contingencies 59 497,235,276 519,854,597
At amortised Cost – Loans and receivables
Government securities (Risk Free Investments) 40,076,392 44,925,168
Rating 0-4: Investment grade(*) 382,276,912 295,536,012 11,747,634 12,799,201
Rating 5-6: Moderate risk 222,439,065 205,704,910 624,458 601,106
Rating S: High risk 1,696,932 2,937,274
Rating 7-9: Extreme risk 26,977,998 21,988,485
Gross carrying amount 633,390,907 526,166,681 624,458 601,106 51,824,026 57,724,369
Less: Provision for impairment (Individual and Collective) 17,372,679 18,051,554
Net carrying amount 32,33,36 616,018,228 508,115,127 624,458 601,106 51,824,026 57,724,369
Financial investments – Available-for-sale
Government securities (Risk Free Investments) 159,573,316 193,938,549
Rating 0-4: Investment grade 450,155 486,880
Rating 5-6: Moderate risk 9,818,860
Rating S: High risk
Rating 7-9: Extreme risk
Gross/net carrying amount 34 160,023,471 204,244,289
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity
Government securities (Risk Free Investments) 50,980,717
Rating 0-4: Investment grade
Rating 5-6: Moderate risk 10,000,581
Rating S : High risk
Rating 7-9: Extreme risk
Gross/net carrying amount 35 60,981,298
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading
Government securities (Risk Free Investments) 3,505,335 3,943,697
Rating 0-4: Investment grade 293,809 326,263
Rating 5-6: Moderate risk 1,188,654 3,386,389
Rating S: High risk
Rating 7-9: Extreme risk
Gross/net carrying amount 31 4,987,798 7,656,349
Total net carrying amount 616,018,228 508,115,127 624,458 601,106 277,816,593 269,625,007
Off-Balance Sheet(**)
Maximum Exposure
Lending commitments
Grade 0-6: Investment grade to moderate risk 131,381,356 153,979,986
Contingencies
0-6: Investment grade to moderate risk 365,853,920 365,874,611
Total exposure 59 497,235,276 519,854,597

(*) Investment grade also includes Cash, Gold.

(**) Amounts reported above does not include capital commitments disclosed in Note 59 on ‘Contingent Liabilities and Commitments’ on pages 304 to 306.

69.1.1 (b) Age Analysis by Class of Financial Assets

The maximum exposure to credit risk for class of financial assets by risk rating and by age are given below:

As at December 31, Notes Loans and Receivables to Other Customers Loans and Receivables to Banks Financial Investments Lending Commitments and Contingencies
2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Government securities (Risk Free investments) 254,135,760 242,807,414
Gross carrying amount 254,135,760 242,807,414
Neither past due nor individually impaired
Rating 0-4: Investment grade 377,513,301 294,042,877 12,491,598 13,612,344 268,186,647 283,307,261
Rating 5-6: Moderate risk 218,392,511 203,984,694 624,458 601,106 11,189,235 13,205,249 229,048,629 236,547,336
Gross carrying amount 595,905,812 498,027,571 624,458 601,106 23,680,833 26,817,593 497,235,276 519,854,597
Past due but not individually Impaired
Less than 3 months 8,484,516 5,568,510
3 to 6 months 507,450 914,145
6 to 12 months 859,216 921,336
12 to 18 months 490,692 789,046
More than 18 months 5,041,144 8,199,444
Gross carrying amount 15,383,018 16,392,481
Individually impaired
Less than 3 months 11,145,557 4,357,858
3 to 6 months 748,471 1,099,777
6 to 12 months 598,082 284,986
12 to 18 months 893,546 906,849
More than 18 months 8,716,421 5,097,159
Gross carrying amount 22,102,077 11,746,629
Total gross carrying amount 633,390,907 526,166,681 624,458 601,106 277,816,593 269,625,007 497,235,276 519,854,597
Less: Provision for impairment
Individual 8,453,457 5,369,960
Collective 8,919,222 12,681,594
Total Provision for impairment 17,372,679 18,051,554
Total net carrying amount 31-36,59 616,018,228 508,115,127 624,458 601,106 277,816,593 269,625,007 497,235,276 519,854,597

The methodology of the impairment assessment is explained in the Note 18 on pages 220 and 222.

69.1.1 (c) Credit Risk Exposure for Each Internal Credit Rating on Facilities and Probability of Historical Default Rates

Through adoption of a robust risk grading system that falls in line with Basel requirements, the Bank maintains accurate and consistent risk ratings across the credit portfolio in accordance with the established policy framework to ensure the quality of its credit portfolio. The risk grading framework consists of several ratings of risks to represent varying degrees of risks as an indicator for Lending Officers to evaluate the overall risk profile of counterpart and to arrive at an acceptable risk return trade-off. It also provides a tool for the Management to assess the credit exposures across all lines of business, geographic regions and products. The risk gradings of the borrowers are reviewed at least annually or more frequently in a deteriorating risk profile of the counterparties.

The Bank’s internal credit rating of the loans and receivable portfolio together with historical default rates and respective gross carrying amounts are given in the table below:

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Bank’s Internal Credit Rating Note Probability of Historical Default Rates Gross Carrying Amount Probability of Historical Default Rates Gross Carrying Amount
% Rs. ’000 % Rs. ’000
Gold 10.34 1,246,374 12.13 1,879,893
Investment Grade
Rating – 0 0.21 74,103,326 0.14 57,957,593
Rating – 1 0.17 8,137,933 0.28 5,343,970
Rating – 2 0.22 32,231,244 0.20 25,937,869
Rating – 3 0.42 124,005,233 0.54 96,615,386
Rating – 4 0.60 137,789,192 0.54 106,308,166
Subtotal 377,513,302 294,042,877
Moderate Risk
Rating – 5 0.75 183,723,935 0.74 172,997,420
Rating – 6 1.31 34,668,576 1.30 30,987,274
Subtotal 218,392,511 203,984,694
Past due but not individually impaired
High Risk
Rating – S 23.57 1,081,476 23.29 1,807,302
Extreme Risk
Rating – 7 54.78 7,474,654 56.39 3,246,400
Rating – 8 71.22 630,680 69.86 1,191,771
Rating – 9 100.00 6,196,207 100.00 10,147,008
Subtotal 15,383,017 16,392,481
Impaired
Individually Impaired(*) 22,102,077 11,746,629
Total 33 633,390,907 526,166,681

(*) Probability of historical default rates are not calculated for individually impaired loans and receivables.

69.1.1 (d) Credit Quality by Class of Financial Assets

The table below shows the credit quality by the class of asset for all financial assets exposed to credit risk, based on the Bank’s internal credit rating:

As at December 31, 2016 Neither Past Due Nor Individually Impaired
Note Government Guarantee Investment Grade Moderate Risk Past Due But Not Individually Impaired Individually Impaired Total
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cash and cash equivalents 27 30,193,589 30,193,589
Balances with Central Banks 28 43,873,205 43,873,205
Placements with banks 29 11,718,499 11,718,499
Securities purchased under resale agreements
Derivative financial assets 30 1,052,829 1,052,829
Other financial instruments – held-for-trading 31 3,505,335 293,809 1,188,654 4,987,798
Loans and receivables to banks 32 624,458 624,458
Loans and receivables to other customers 33 375,317,855 216,881,465 10,170,288 13,648,620 616,018,228
Corporate banking 194,301,767 69,668,628 6,354,171 4,144,273 274,468,839
Amortised cost 195,783,488 70,296,607 6,850,195 7,095,590 280,025,880
Less – provision for impairment 1,481,721 627,979 496,024 2,951,317 5,557,041
Personal banking 181,016,088 147,212,837 3,816,117 9,504,347 341,549,389
Amortised cost 181,729,813 148,095,904 8,532,823 15,006,487 353,365,027
Less – provision for impairment 713,725 883,067 4,716,706 5,502,140 11,815,638
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 34 159,573,316 450,155 160,023,471
Government Securities 159,573,316 159,573,316
Quoted shares 246,548 246,548
Unquoted shares 47,147 47,147
Investment in unit trust 156,460 156,460
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 35 60,981,298 60,981,298
Government Securities 60,981,298 60,981,298
Other investments
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 36 40,076,392 11,747,634 51,824,026
Government Securities 40,076,392 40,076,392
Other investments 11,747,634 11,747,634
Total 308,009,546 430,774,370 218,694,577 10,170,288 13,648,620 981,297,401

Definition of ‘Past Due’ – The Bank considers that any amounts uncollected one day or more beyond their contractual due date.

As at December 31, 2015 Neither Past Due Nor Individually Impaired
Note Government Guarantee Investment Grade Moderate Risk Past Due But Not Individually Impaired Individually Impaired Total
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Cash and cash equivalents 27 20,043,512 20,043,512
Balances with Central Banks 28 28,221,017 28,221,017
Placements with banks 29 17,193,539 17,193,539
Securities purchased under resale agreements 8,002,100 8,002,100
Derivative financial assets 30 4,118,169 4,118,169
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 31 3,943,697 326,263 3,386,389 7,656,349
Loans and receivables to banks 32 601,106 601,106
Loans and receivables to other customers 33 292,140,306 202,385,179 7,212,973 6,376,669 508,115,127
Corporate banking 156,450,856 70,818,794 2,377,758 2,368,228 232,015,636
Amortised cost 157,741,097 71,573,763 2,743,604 5,029,349 237,087,813
Less - provision for impairment 1,290,241 754,969 365,846 2,661,121 5,072,177
Personal banking 135,689,450 131,566,385 4,835,215 4,008,441 276,099,491
Amortised cost 136,301,780 132,410,931 13,648,878 6,717,280 289,078,869
Less - provision for impairment 612,330 844,546 8,813,663 2,708,839 12,979,378
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 34 193,938,549 486,880 9,818,860 204,244,289
Government Securities 193,938,549 9,818,860 203,757,409
Quoted shares 234,839 234,839
Unquoted shares 46,487 46,487
Investment in unit trust 205,554 205,554
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 35
Government Securities
Other invesments
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 36 44,925,168 12,799,201 57,724,369
Government Securities 44,925,168 44,925,168
Other investments 12,799,201 12,799,201
Total 279,030,531 347,107,870 216,191,534 7,212,973 6,376,669 855,919,577

Definition of ‘Past Due’ – The Bank considers that any amount uncollected one day or more beyond their contractual due date.

69.1.1 (e) Trading Assets
Held-for-Trading Investments in Debt and Equity Securities

The table below sets out the credit quality of debt and equity securities classified as held-for-trading debt securities which include investments made by the Bank in Government Securities of Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The analysis of equity securities is based on Fitch Ratings Nomenclature or Equivalent Ratings, where applicable.

As at December 31, Note 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Government securities
Government securities – Sri Lanka
Treasury bills 1,761,970 1,552,531
Treasury bonds 1,743,365 2,391,166
Government securities – Bangladesh
Treasury bills 705,251
Treasury bonds 483,403 3,386,389
Total – Government securities 4,693,989 7,330,086
Equity securities
Rated AAA 9,966 54,803
Rated AA+ to AA- 19 17
Rated A+ to A 86,970 30,380
Rated BBB+
Unrated 196,854 241,063
Total – Equity securities 293,809 326,263
Total 31 4,987,798 7,656,349
Credit Exposure Arising from Derivative Transactions

Credit risk arising from derivative financial instruments at any time is limited to those with positive fair values, as reported in the Statement of Financial Position. With gross settled derivatives, the Bank is also exposed to a settlement risk, being the risk that the counterparty failing to deliver the counter value.

The tables below show an analysis of credit exposures arising from derivative financial assets and liabilities:

As at December 31,2016 Derivative Type
Forward SWAPS Spot Total
Notional Amount Fair Value Notional Amount Fair Value Notional Amount Fair Value Notional Amount Fair Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Derivative financial assets (Note 1) 45,610,942 788,808 61,841,987 261,664 2,713,810 2,357 110,166,739 1,052,829
Derivative financial liabilities (Note 2) 20,808,137 (849,010) 96,170,047 (663,714) 1,513,965 (2,311) 118,492,149 (1,515,035)
Note 1
Derivative financial assets by counterparty type
With Banks 12,618,500 98,281 56,881,672 247,217 2,352,621 2,258 71,852,793 347,756
Other customers 32,992,442 690,527 4,960,315 14,447 361,189 99 38,313,946 705,073
45,610,942 788,808 61,841,987 261,664 2,713,810 2,357 110,166,739 1,052,829
Note 2
Derivative financial liabilities by counterparty type
With Banks 8,910,120 (38,476) 93,952,339 (654,910) 1,513,965 (2,311) 104,376,424 (695,697)
Other customers 11,898,017 (810,534) 2,217,708 (8,804) 14,115,725 (819,338)
20,808,137 (849,010) 96,170,047 (663,714) 1,513,965 (2,311) 118,492,149 (1,515,035)
As at December 31,2015 Derivative Type
Forward SWAPS Spot Total
Notional Amount Fair Value Notional Amount Fair Value Notional Amount Fair Value Notional Amount Fair Value
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Derivative financial assets (Note 1) 33,615,548 786,794 119,436,202 3,328,679 4,537,226 2,696 157,588,976 4,118,169
Derivative financial liabilities (Note 2) 37,226,463 (1,098,002) 49,029,977 (791,199) 2,505,341 (1,569) 88,761,781 (1,890,770)
Note 1
Derivative financial assets by counterparty type
With Banks 7,233,582 108,548 119,349,712 3,328,679 4,150,359 1,711 130,733,653 3,438,938
Other customers 26,381,966 678,246 86,490 386,867 985 26,855,323 679,231
33,615,548 786,794 119,436,202 3,328,679 4,537,226 2,696 157,588,976 4,118,169
Note 2
Derivative financial liabilities by counterparty type
With Banks 31,120,972 (851,679) 49,029,977 (787,433) 2,412,484 (1,513) 82,563,433 (1,640,625)
Other customers 6,105,491 (246,323) (3,766) 92,857 (56) 6,198,348 (250,145)
37,226,463 (1,098,002) 49,029,977 (791,199) 2,505,341 (1,569) 88,761,781 (1,890,770)

69.1.2 Impaired Loans and Receivables and Investment Debt Securities

Reconciliation of changes in the carrying amount of individually impaired loans and receivables is as detailed below:

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Impaired loans and receivables to other customers as at January 01, 6,376,669 2,214,099
Newly classified as impaired loans and receivables during the year 9,802,478 5,282,954
Net change in already impaired loans and receivables during the year (281,599) (608,652)
Net payment, write-off and recoveries and other movement during the year (2,248,928) (511,732)
Impaired loans and receivables to customers as at December 31, 13,648,620 6,376,669

No impairment provision has been made for investment in debt securities as at December 31, 2016 (2015 – Nil).

For methodology of the impairment assessment, refer Note 18 on ‘Impairment of Financial Assets’ which are carried at amortised cost on pages 220 and 222.

For details of provision for impairment for loans and receivables to banks and for loans and receivable to other customers, refer Notes 32 and 33 on pages 244 to 251.

Set out below is an analysis of the gross and net carrying amounts of individually impaired loans and receivables by risk rating.

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Loans and Receivable to Customers Loans and Receivable to Customers
Gross Net Gross Net
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Rating 0-4: Investment grade 4,766,976 4,607,959 1,493,134 1,418,234
Rating 5-6: Moderate risk 4,046,553 3,912,239 1,720,216 1,620,746
Rating S: High risk 615,456 402,464 1,129,972 807,046
Rating 7-9: Extreme risk 12,673,092 4,725,958 7,403,307 2,530,643
Total 22,102,077 13,648,620 11,746,629 6,376,669

69.1.3 Collateral Held

Loan to Value Ratio of Residential Mortgage Lending

The table below stratifies mortgaged credit exposures to retail customers by ranges of loan-to-value (LTV) ratio. LTV is calculated as the ratio of the gross amount of the loan to the value of the collateral, which is used for the computation of Capital Adequacy ratios. The value of the collateral for residential mortgage loans is based on the forced sale value determined by professional valuers.

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Composition (%) Rs. ’000 Composition (%)
LTV ratio
Less than 50% 8,406,374 26.14 4,706,206 21.68
51 - 70% 7,027,873 21.86 5,443,350 25.08
71 - 90% 8,262,704 25.70 6,693,133 30.84
91 - 100% 1,352,172 4.20 958,034 4.41
More than 100%* 7,105,439 22.10 3,903,690 17.99
32,154,562 100.00 21,704,413 100.00

* LTV ratio of more than 100% has arisen due to subsequent disbursements made to the borrower on the initial valuation of the property (the denominator).

Assets Obtained by taking the Possession of Collaterals

Repossession of collaterals is resorted to in extreme situations where action is necessitated to recover the dues. The repossessed assets are disposed, in an orderly and transparent manner and the proceeds are used to reduce or recover the outstanding claims. The amount recovered in excess of the dues is refunded to the customer.

69.1.4 Concentrations of Credit Risk

By setting various concentration limits under different criteria within the established risk appetite framework (i.e., single borrower/group, industry sectors, product, counterparty and country etc.), the Bank ensures that an acceptable level of risk diversification is maintained on an ongoing basis. These limits are continuously monitored and periodically reviewed by the Credit Policy Committee, the Executive Integrated Risk Management Committee and the Board Integrated Risk Management Committee to capture the developments in market, political and economic environment both locally and globally to strengthen the dynamic portfolio management practices and to provide an early warning on possible credit concentrations.

The maximum exposure to credit risk in respect of each item of financial assets in the Statement of Financial Position as at December 31, as per industry sector and by geographical region of financial assets is given below:

69.1.4 (a) Industry-wise Distribution
As at December 31, 2016 Agriculture and Fishing Manu- facturing Tourism Transport Construction Traders New Economy Financial and Business Services Government Infrastructure Other Services Other Customers Total
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 30,193,589 30,193,589
Balances with Central Banks 43,873,205 43,873,205
Placements with banks 11,718,499 11,718,499
Securities purchased under resale agreements
Derivative financial assets 86,050 180,305 757,311 29,163 1,052,829
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 115,386 8,269 8,487 30,707 28,912 77,933 4,693,989 24,115 4,987,798
Government Securities 4,693,989 4,693,989
Quoted equity securities 115,386 8,269 8,487 30,707 28,912 77,933 24,115 293,809
Loans and receivables to banks 624,458 624,458
Loans and receivables to other customers 61,601,062 89,467,955 43,784,446 14,493,562 78,831,928 90,502,006 14,664,164 49,133,741 17,805,741 56,263,732 99,469,891 616,018,228
Loans & advances* 61,601,062 89,467,955 43,784,446 14,493,562 78,831,928 90,502,006 14,664,164 49,133,741 17,805,741 56,263,732 99,469,891 616,018,228
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 14,427 435,728 159,573,316 160,023,471
Government Securities 159,573,316 159,573,316
Equity securities – Quoted shares 14,427 232,121 246,548
Equity securities – Unquoted shares 47,147 47,147
Investment in Unit trusts 156,460 156,460
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity 60,981,298 60,981,298
Government Securities 60,981,298 60,981,298
Financial investments – Loans and receivable 2,584,717 998,155 7,927,595 40,076,392 237,167 51,824,026
Government Securities 40,076,392 40,076,392
Investment in Unit trusts 2,584,717 998,155 7,927,595 237,167 11,747,634
Total 61,601,062 92,268,535 43,792,715 14,493,562 78,840,415 91,711,173 14,693,076 100,868,854 309,198,200 17,829,856 56,530,062 99,469,891 981,297,401

(*) Loans and advances referred to above do not agree with the Note 33.1 (c) on page 247 due to impairment provision.

As at December 31, 2015 Agriculture and Fishing Manufacturing Tourism Transport Construction Traders New Economy Financial and Business Services Government Infrastructure Other Services Other Customers Total
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
Financial Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 20,043,512 20,043,512
Balances with Central Banks 28,221,017 28,221,017
Placements with banks 17,193,539 17,193,539
Securities purchased under resale agreements 8,002,100 8,002,100
Derivative financial assets 166,252 6,600 8,353 262 317,574 3,602,206 16,422 500 4,118,169
Other financial instruments – Held-for-trading 155,422 9,495 15,599 35,019 30,516 52,106 7,330,086 28,106 7,656,349
Government Securities 7,330,086 7,330,086
Quoted securities – Quoted shares 155,422 9,495 15,599 35,019 30,516 52,106 28,106 326,263
Loans and receivables to banks 601,106 601,106
Loans and receivables to other customers 43,880,354 70,756,644 31,704,922 16,229,559 59,068,173 74,515,538 13,733,055 43,678,286 18,958,293 49,292,548 86,297,755 508,115,127
Loans & advances* 43,880,354 70,756,644 31,704,922 16,229,559 59,068,173 74,515,538 13,733,055 43,678,286 18,958,293 49,292,548 86,297,755 508,115,127
Financial investments – Available-for-sale 12,427 474,453 203,757,409 204,244,289
Government Securities 203,757,409 203,757,409
Equity securities – Quoted shares 12,427 222,412 234,839
Equity securities – Unquoted shares 46,487 46,487
Investment in Unit trust 205,554 205,554
Financial investments – Held-to-maturity
Government Securities
Financial investments – Loans and receivables 2,875,163 1,083,961 8,602,910 44,925,168 237,167 57,724,369
Government Securities 44,925,168 44,925,168
Investment in Unit trusts 2,875,163 1,083,961 8,602,910 237,167 12,799,201
Total 43,880,354 73,965,908 31,721,017 16,237,912 59,084,034 75,952,092 13,763,571 94,248,118 292,235,780 18,986,399 49,546,137 86,298,255 855,919,577

(*) Loans and advances referred to above do not agree with the Note 33.1 (c) on page 247 due to impairment provision.

69.1.4 (b) Geographical Distribution of Loans and Receivable Portfolio

The Western Province has recorded a higher percentage of lending based on geographical distribution of the Bank’s lending portfolio. It has accounted for 76% (approximately) of total advances portfolio of the Bank (excluding Bangladesh operations) as at December 31, 2016. Although, Western Province is attracted with highest credit concentration, we believe that a sizable portion of these lending has been utilised to facilitate industries scattered around the country. For example, most of the large corporates which have island-wide operations are being accommodated by the Branches and Corporate Banking Division situated in the Western Province thereby reflecting a fairly diversified geographical concentration contrary to the figures given below:

As at December 31, 2016
Country/Province Loans and Receivables by Product
Overdrafts Rs. ’000 Trade Finance Rs. ’000 Lease Receivables Rs. ’000 Credit Cards Rs. ’000 Pawning Rs. ’000 Staff Loans Rs. ’000 Housing Loans Rs. ’000 Personal Loans Rs. ’000 Long-Term Loans Rs. ’000 Short-Term Loans Rs. ’000 Bills of Exchange Rs. ’000 Total Rs. ’000
Sri Lanka
Central 10,661,557 178,668 1,942,902 323,715 52,966 2,787,403 1,374,071 16,327,523 953,154 30,441 34,632,400
Eastern 832,420 91,427 428,517 69,867 13,091 286,271 407,103 1,933,866 34,492 4,097,054
North Central 946,600 104,482 1,534,704 79,938 7,219 423,027 293,058 4,584,201 201,547 4,433 8,179,209
Northern 2,004,596 148 792,854 90,711 352,881 619,791 614,333 3,070,477 40,954 7,586,745
North Western 4,761,332 522,114 2,633,365 270,788 121,944 2,982,527 1,483,099 11,563,070 714,417 13,287 25,065,943
Sabaragamuwa 4,571,645 289,939 2,334,374 165,686 53,744 2,430,909 865,355 7,917,406 427,456 3,025 19,059,539
Southern 5,137,398 1,380,610 3,022,169 329,615 83,428 4,472,432 1,803,027 12,331,936 327,570 976 28,889,161
Uva 1,226,155 31,070 963,565 92,241 17,990 1,600,487 551,923 3,505,996 220,512 1,248 8,211,187
Western 64,168,727 38,940,278 21,660,085 4,646,051 532,526 7,144,946 30,661,911 17,701,287 201,515,731 43,616,020 3,571,804 434,159,366
Bangladesh 3,793,007 704,416 177,863 68,234 106,066 221,024 276,508 8,720,126 23,435,538 8,634,842 46,137,624
Total 98,103,437 42,243,152 35,490,398 6,136,846 1,235,789 7,251,012 46,485,782 25,369,764 271,470,332 69,971,660 12,260,056 616,018,228
As at December 31, 2015
Country/Province Loans and Receivables by Product
Overdrafts Rs. ’000 Trade Finance Rs. ’000 Lease Receivables Rs. ’000 Credit Cards Rs. ’000 Pawning Rs. ’000 Staff Loans Rs. ’000 Housing Loans Rs. ’000 Personal Loans Rs. ’000 Long-Term Loans Rs. ’000 Short-Term Loans Rs. ’000 Bills of Exchange Rs. ’000 Total Rs. ’000
Sri Lanka
Central 8,554,213 180,407 2,066,547 256,801 103,425 2,480,416 1,438,608 12,100,975 1,005,681 50,194 28,237,267
Eastern 671,967 27,151 479,533 59,211 35,273 228,346 435,810 1,490,021 28,071 1,599 3,456,982
North Central 691,180 71,533 1,384,839 68,702 8,779 355,277 281,563 2,948,036 199,250 2,901 6,012,060
Northern 1,709,859 47,798 735,285 73,501 486,231 536,945 557,278 2,504,367 29,811 967 6,682,042
North Western 3,531,249 406,243 2,579,974 220,765 192,368 2,756,994 1,414,967 9,546,347 558,536 3,212 21,210,655
Sabaragamuwa 3,222,608 139,125 1,912,235 121,407 78,159 1,961,883 882,740 5,437,548 255,548 8,833 14,020,086
Southern 4,071,013 1,328,383 3,062,705 238,144 126,180 3,961,944 1,958,579 10,612,183 213,666 21,603 25,594,400
Uva 828,363 2,409 998,925 75,521 31,476 1,359,779 481,967 3,049,962 145,196 7 6,973,605
Western 51,816,858 41,965,436 20,425,439 2,868,609 803,814 5,999,407 25,570,432 17,918,380 165,670,040 19,425,636 2,838,338 355,302,389
Bangladesh 3,943,380 911,569 176,685 57,608 100,426 170,182 279,043 5,861,989 20,825,415 8,299,344 40,625,641
Total 79,040,690 45,080,054 33,822,167 4,040,269 1,865,705 6,099,833 39,382,198 25,648,935 219,221,468 42,686,810 11,226,998 508,115,127

Please refer Note 33 on page 245 for the Gross carrying amount of the Loans and Advances.

 

69.1.5 Exposures to Unrated Countries

This note summarises the Bank’s On-Balance Sheet and Off-Balance Sheet exposure to countries which are not rated by an established rating company.

As at December 31, 2016 2015
Rs. ’000 Rs. ’000
On-Balance Sheet Exposures
Loans and receivables to customers
At net carrying amount 253,978 12,565,857
Gross carrying value 254,534 14,177,263
Less – Provision for impairment 556 1,611,406
At fair value net of provision for impairment (*) 253,978 12,565,857
Fair value before impairment 254,534 14,177,263
Less – Provision for impairment 556 1,611,406
Off-Balance Sheet Exposures
Loan commitments and contingencies 9,301,980
Contingencies 47,419
Loan commitments 9,254,561
Total On-Balance Sheet and Off-Balance Sheet exposure 253,978 21,867,837

(*) There is no difference between the net carrying value and the fair value, as all facilities have been granted under floating interest rates.

69.2 Liquidity Risk

Liquidity risk is the Bank’s inability to meet On or Off-Balance Sheet contractual and contingent financial obligations, as they fall due without incurring unacceptable losses. The principal objective in liquidity risk management is to assess the need for funds to meet such obligations and to ensure the availability of adequate funding to fulfil those needs at the appropriate time, under both normal and stressed conditions.

Therefore, the Bank continuously analyses and monitors its liquidity profile, maintains adequate levels of high quality liquid assets, ensures access to diverse funding sources and has contingency funding agreements with peer banks to meet any unforeseen liquidity requirements. Exposures and ratios against tolerance limits as well as stressed scenarios are regularly monitored in order to identify the Bank’s liquidity position and potential funding requirements.

Assets and Liability Management Committee (ALCO)

ALCO chaired by the Managing Director, has representatives from Treasury, Corporate Banking, Personal Banking, Risk and Finance Departments. The Committee meets fortnightly or more frequently to monitor and manage the assets and liabilities of the Bank and a