Glossary of Financial and Banking Terms
Promise to pay created when the drawee of a time draft stamps or writes the word ‘accepted’ above his signature and a designated payment date.
The specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices adopted by an entity in preparing and presenting Financial Statements.
Recognition of the effects of transactions and other events when they occur without waiting for receipt or payment of cash or cash equivalent.
Gain or loss arising from the difference between estimates and actual experience in an entity’s pension plan.
The systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an intangible asset over its useful life.
Amount at which the ﬁnancial asset or ﬁnancial liability is measured at initial recognition, minus principal repayments, plus or minus the cumulative amortisation using the effective interest method of any difference between that initial amount and the maturity amount and minus any reduction for impairment or un-collectability.
An entity over which the investor has significant influence.
Available-for-Sale (AFS) Financial Investments
All non-derivative financial assets that are designated as available-for-sale or are not classified as loans and receivables, financial investments – Held-to-maturity and financial investments at fair value through profit or loss.
The capital adequacy framework issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in the form of the ‘International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards’.
The BCBS issued the Basel III rules text, which presents the details of strengthened global regulatory standards on bank capital adequacy and liquidity.
Basis Point (bp)
One-hundredth of a percentage point (0.01 per cent); 100 basis points is 1 percentage point. Used in quoting movements in interest rates or yields on securities.
Bills Sent for Collection
A bill of exchange drawn by an exporter usually at a term, on an importer overseas and brought by the exporter to his bank with a request to collect the proceeds.
Capital Adequacy Ratio
The percentage of risk-adjusted assets supported by capital as defined under the framework of risk-based capital standards developed by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and as modified by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka to suit local requirements.
Short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
Cash Generating Unit (CGU)
The smallest group of assets that independently generates cash flow and the cash flow is largely independent of the cash flows generated by other assets.
Collectively Assessed Loan Impairment Provisions
Also known as portfolio impairment provisions. Impairment assessment on a collective basis for homogeneous groups of loans that are not considered individually significant and to cover losses that has been incurred but has not yet been identified at the reporting date.
Credit facilities approved but not yet utilised by the clients as at the Reporting date.
A condition or situation, the ultimate outcome of which will be confirmed only on the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events.
The process by which corporate entities are governed. It is concerned with the way in which power is exercised over the management and direction of entity, the supervision of executive actions and accountability to owners and others.
A bank in a foreign country that offers banking facilities to the customers of a bank in another country.
Operating expenses excluding impairment charge for loans and other losses as a percentage of total operating income.
An evaluation of a corporate’s ability to repay its obligations or the likelihood of not defaulting, carried out by an independent rating agency.
Risk of financial loss to the Bank, if a customer or counterparty to a financial instrument fails to meet its contractual obligations, and arises principally from the loans and advances to customers and other banks and investment in debt securities.
The simultaneous purchase of an amount of a currency for spot settlement and the sale of the same amount of the same currency for forward settlement.
Sum set aside in the Financial Statements for taxation that may become payable/receivable in a financial year other than the current financial year. It arises because of temporary differences between tax rules and accounting conventions.
A debt or other financial obligation is considered to be in a state of delinquency when payments are overdue. Loans and advances are considered to be delinquent when consecutive payments are missed. Also known as ‘Arrears’.
A derivative is a financial instrument or other contract, the value of which changes in response to some underlying variable (e.g. interest rate) that has an initial net investment smaller than would be required for other instruments that have a similar response to the variable, and that will be settled at a future date.
Profit after tax divided by gross dividends. This ratio measures the number of times dividend is covered by the current year’s distributable profits.
Dividend earned per share as a percentage of its market value.
Documentary Letters of Credit (LCs)
Written undertaking by a bank on behalf of its customers, authorising a third party to draw on the Bank up to a stipulated amount under specific terms and conditions. Such undertakings are established for the purpose of facilitating international trade.
Earnings per Ordinary Share (EPS)
The profit attributable to ordinary shareholders divided by the number of ordinary shares in issue.
Effective Interest Rate (EIR)
Rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the ﬁnancial instruments or when appropriate, a shorter period to the net carrying amount of the ﬁnancial asset or ﬁnancial liability.
Effective Tax Rate (ETR)
Provision for taxation excluding deferred tax expressed as a percentage of the profit before taxation.
This is a method of accounting whereby the investment is initially recognised at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post-acquisition changes in the investor’s share of net assets of the investee. The profit or loss and other comprehensive income of the investor include the investor’s share of the profit or loss and other comprehensive income of the investee.
The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
Fair Value through Profit or Loss Investments
A financial asset/liability acquired/incurred principally for the purpose of selling or repurchasing it in the near term, part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that are managed together and for which there is evidence of a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking, or a derivative (except for a derivative that is a financial guarantee contract).
A lease in which the lessee acquires all the financial benefits and risks attaching to ownership of the asset under lease.
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to both a financial asset in one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument in another entity.
Forward Exchange Contract
Agreement between two parties to exchange one currency for another at a future date at a rate agreed upon today.
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
The GRI is an international independent standards organisation that helps businesses, Governments and other organisations understand and communicate their impacts on issues such as climate change, human rights and corruption. GRI promotes sustainability reporting as a way for organisations to become more sustainable and contribute to sustainable development.
A parent and all its subsidiaries.
Three party agreement involving a promise by one party (the guarantor) to fulfil the obligations of a person owing a debt if that person fails to perform.
A strategy under which transactions are effected with the aim of providing cover against the risk of unfavourable price movements (interest rate, foreign exchange rate, commodity prices, etc.).
Held-to-Maturity (HTM) Investments
Non-derivative ﬁnancial assets with ﬁxed or determinable payments and ﬁxed maturity that an entity has the positive intention and ability to hold to maturity.
High Quality Liquid Assets (HQLA)
Assets that are unencumbered, liquid in markets during a time of stress and ideally, be Central Bank eligible. These include, for example, cash and claims on Central Governments and Central Banks.
Loans where the Group does not expect to collect all the contractual cash flows or expects to collect them later than they are contractually due.
This occurs when recoverable amount of an asset is less than its carrying amount.
Impairment allowances are provisions held on the Statement of Financial Position as a result of the raising of a charge against profit for the incurred loss. An impairment allowance may either be identified or unidentified and individual (specific) or collective (portfolio).
An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance.
Interest Rate SWAP
An agreement between two parties (known as counterparties) where one stream of future interest payments is exchanged for another stream of future interest payments based on a speciﬁed principal amount.
Represents the difference between the average interest rate earned on interest earning assets and the average interest rate paid on interest-bearing liabilities.
Property (land or a building – or part of a building – or both) held (by the owner or by the lessee for capital appreciation or both, rather than for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative services; or sale in the ordinary course of business.
Key Management Personnel (KMP)
Key Management Personnel are those persons having authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the entity, directly or indirectly, including any Director (whether Executive or otherwise) of that entity.
Assets that are held in cash or in a form that can be converted to cash readily, such as deposits with other banks, Bills of Exchange and Treasury Bills and Bonds.
Loans and Receivables
Non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market other than those intends to sell immediately or in the near term and designated as fair value through profit or loss or available-for-sale on initial recognition.
Loan-to-Value Ratio (LTV)
The LTV ratio is a mathematical expression which expresses the amount of a first mortgage lien as a percentage of the total appraised value of real property. The LTV ratio is used in determining the appropriate level of risk for the loan and therefore the correct price of the loan to the borrower.
Loss Given Default (LGD)
LGD is the percentage of an exposure that a lender expects to lose in the event of obligor default.
The value of an entity obtained by multiplying the number of ordinary shares in issue multiplied by its market value as at a date.
This refers to the possibility of loss arising from changes in the value of a financial instrument as a result of changes in market variables such as interest rates, exchange rates, credit spreads and other asset prices.
The relative significance of a transaction or an event, the omission or misstatement of which could influence the economic decisions of users of Financial Statements.
Net Interest Income (NII)
The difference between the amount a bank earns on assets such as loans and securities and the amount it pays on liabilities such as deposits, refinance funds and inter-bank borrowings.
Net Interest Margin (NIM)
The margin is expressed as net interest income divided by average interest earning assets.
Non-Controlling Interest (NCI)
Equity in a Subsidiary not attributable, directly or indirectly, to a parent.
A bank account held in foreign country by a domestic bank, denominated in the currency of that country. Nostro accounts are used to facilitate the settlement of foreign exchange trade transactions.
Open Credit Exposure Ratio
Total net non-performing loans and advances expressed as a percentage of regulatory
This refers to the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events.
An entity that controls one or more entities.
Price Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio)
Market price of a share divided by the earnings
Probability of Default (PD)
PD is an internal estimate for each borrower grade of the likelihood that an obligor will default on an obligation.
Total provisions for loan losses expressed as a percentage of net non-performing loans and advances before discounting for provisions on non-performing loans and advances.
One party has the ability to control the other party or exercise significant influence over the other party in making financial and operating decisions, directly or indirectly.
Related Party Transaction (RPT)
RPT is a transfer of resources, services or obligations between a reporting entity and a related party, regardless whether a price is charged.
Contract to sell and subsequently repurchase securities at a specified date and price.
Return on Average Assets (ROA)
Profit after tax expressed as a percentage of the average assets.
Return on Average Equity (ROE)
Net profit attributable to owners expressed as a percentage of average ordinary shareholders’ equity.
Reverse Repurchase Agreement
Transaction involving the purchase of securities by a bank or a dealer and resale back to the seller at a future date at a specified price.
The sum total of assets as per the Statement of Financial Position and the credit equivalent of assets that are not on the Statement of Financial Position multiplied by the relevant risk weighting factors.
Disclosure of bank’s assets, income and other information, broken down by activity and geographical area.
Specific Impairment Provisions
Impairment is measured individually for loans that are individually significant to the Bank.
An entity that is controlled by another entity.
Substance Over Form
The consideration that the accounting treatment and presentation of Financial Statements of transactions and events should be governed by their substance and financial reality and not merely by legal form.
Tier I Capital (Core Capital)
Core capital representing permanent shareholders’ equity and reserves created or increased by appropriations of retained earnings or other surpluses.
Tier II Capital (Supplementary Capital)
Supplementary capital representing revaluation reserves, general provisions and other capital instruments, which combine certain characteristics of equity and debt such as hybrid capital instruments and subordinated term debts.
An undertaking formed to invest in securities under the terms of a trust deed.
Yield to Maturity (YTM)
Discount rate at which the present value of future cash flows would equal the security’s current price.